Хронологичен списък (1895–1977 г). Книги и статии 113 названия ; редактирани 6 названия.
В систематичен ред. Книги и статии. Около 145 названия.
Some lexical calques created in Russian during the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries with the use of Old Bulgarian and Church Slavonic word-building elements are examined. This has considerably facilitated the adoption of these calques in standard Bulgarian as early as the period of the National Revival.
Two basic aspects of the syntactic structure of the modern Slavic languages, its stability and dynamics are considered. With respect to stability the languages display a tendency to eliminate the syntactic doublets and/or synonyms that are insufficiently differentiated from a functional point of view; a more distinct delimitation of their meanings, nuances and uses; a unification of language expressions leading to expressions and collocations-cliches (sometimes as a result of borrowings from other languages). With respect to dynamics, there is a noticeable expansion of journalese into other styles, officialese and colloquial in particular. As a result of the latter trend, numerous contaminations have appeared and the imperativeness of a number of frequently used expressions has increased. Parallel to that, there is a marked trend towards interpenetration of the different styles; for example, fluctuations in the rection in the standard language under the influence of colloquial speech. In conclusion the author considers the psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic aspects conditioning the innovations in the modern Slavic languages.
The theory of translation is a new linguistic discipline. Its subject is the process of transformation between languages; it is the process of transforming an original text into a translated text while keeping intact the plane of content; on the other hand it is the result of that process, i. e.the translated text itself. It belongs to macro-linguistics, i. e. linguistics in the broad sense of the word, since a wide range of extralinguistic factors are taken into account in the analysis. It is an applied science closely related to the practice of translation. Using the evidence of practical work, the theory of translation makes generalizations, sets up patterns and offers recommendations. Its prescriptive role is rather limited, however. The following fields may be distinguished: (1) GENERAL theory of translation which studies the general problems of translation from any language into any other language; (2) PARTICULAR theory of translation which studies the concrete relationships between any pair of languages (this theory is closely related to contrastive linguistics); (3) SPECIALIZED theories of translation which analyse the translation problems of the different genres: fiction, publicistic, technical and scientific literature. In connection with the translation of fiction there emerge two aspects, a linguistic and a literary one.
The present work treats onomatopoeias and interjections and their translation, substitution or transcription in literary translations. The authors divide the onomatopoeias into natural, animal and mechanical on one hand, and into conventional and individual on the other; the interjections are divided into conventional for all the carriers of a particular language and individual (characterizing a particular character, or author’s neologisms). In both cases only onomatopoeias and interjections proper are taken into consideration and not nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc., derived from them.
The glottometric characteristics of the class of prepositional-prefixal morphemes in modern Bulgarian and Russian texts of various styles are published for the first time. Data on the frequency of occurrence of the five most frequently used prepositional-prefixal morphemes на, в/у, по, с, от, in texts of various styles are also reported. The similarities and differences in the glottometric behaviour of the prepositional-prefixal morphemes in Russian and Bulgarian are shown. The paper also considers the specific characteristics of the analytic structure of modern Bulgarian from a glottometric point of view.
One of the problems of foreign-language teaching arises from the fact that producing wellformed sentences in the target language in class is not a sufficient condition for using it successfully outside the classroom. In the light of recent linguistic developments one can hypothesize that the solution of this problem involves explication of the presuppositions of the model sentences to be learned. The object of this paper is to substantiate the said hypothesis and bear out the necessity of its experimental testing. Arguments from the fields of theoretical linguistics, sociolinguistics and psycholinguistics are presented to this end. A complete teaching act is investigated (from the presentation of a model-sentence by the teacher, through its being processed into a sentence in the target language by the student, to its eventual approbation or correction by the teacher) with the conclusion that the introduction of model-sentences without explication of the respective presuppositions can bring about failure of the teaching act.
Polish and Bulgarian have the same isogloss
roceeding from the well-known fact that uniform description is a condition sine qua non in 36 contrastive analysis, the author examines some problems in the contrastive phonological study of English and Bulgarian, especially on the segmental phonemic level of vowels. A unified description obviously requires a common phonological transcription, but difficulties arise here due to (1) the existence of differing transcription traditions in Britain and the United States, (2) the lack of uniformity in the use of transcription in the two main English-speaking countries, taken separateţy, and (3) the absence of a universally accepted phonological transcription for Bulgarian (phonetic transcriptions of Bulgarian are usually based on the Cyrillic alphabet). After a critical survey of the various systems used for the transcription of English in Britain, the United States and some other countries, and giving special consideration to the quantitative (short-long) and qualitative (lax-tense) correlations, the author proposes a system of „all-English“ vowels transcription, suitable for contrast with Bulgarian.
With a view to setting up an overall classification the author considers the relationships among contrastive linguistics, the theory of translation, foreign language teaching and other related branches of theoretical and applied linguistics. This necessitates the clarification of some currently used terms. Taking into consideration the prevalent usage both in this country and abroad, certain recommendations aimed at achieving terminological unification are offered. Some methodological problems are considered too, especially the role of translation equivalence in contrastive analysis, this leading to the discussion of some debatable points in the theory of translation. The connection of foreign language teaching with contrastive linguistics and the theory of translation are examined against the background of some common features, such as a similar relationship between linguistic and extralinguistic factors, as well as the presence of either natural or artificial bilingualism, with all the implications it carries.
ue to fundamental differences between the phonological systems of Bulgarian and English, 37 Bulgarians tend to disregard the qualitative-quantitative distinction between the English long and short vowel phonemes, especially between the long [i:] and the short [I] phonemes. Bulgarians articulate a different [i] sound which is easily detected perceptually and is treated as a „foreign“ accent by English native speakers. The purpose of this analysis is to determine the acoustic character of that phenomenon. The analysis is confined to monosyllabic words of the consonant-vowel [CV], and consonant-vowel-consonant [CVC] types. The investigation is based on data from the traditional spectrogram which reveals the F-pattern and the quantitative dimensions of the segments. The results of this analysis are compared to the F-pattern of the Bulgarian [i] sound, determined under similar conditions by D. Tilkov in 1968.
The following problems were analysed: 1) constructions with non-detached optional predicatives represented by adjectival words and referring to the subject, treated from the point of view of their lexical realization and the transitivity/intransitivity of the verb-predicate; 2) the interchangeability between this predicative and a derivative adverb; 3) the relationship between the two constructions in the sphere of norm and usage. Considerable similarities have been found between Czech and Bulgarian as regards the lexical and grammatical realization of the constructions with predicatives; with a certain quantitative difference in the area of verbs and transitive verbs in particular. The similarities prevail over the differences also with respect to internal word structure and contextual semantic conditions for the substitution of predicatives by derivative adverbs. The main differences are in the speech realization of the two constructions: the predicative has higher frequency in Bulgarian while the relative adverb predominates in Czech. The use of the Czech predicative is further limited by the use of the present participle and other syntactic synonyms which are more widely used. The development of contemporary Czech (the language of prose) exhibits a tendency towards a restricted use of predicative constructions at the expense of synonymous adverbial constructions.
ender is recognized as a grammatical category both in Russian and Bulgarian but there are substantial differences in the gender of nouns in the two languages. The types of divergence in the gender classification of nouns are pointed out, as well as the factors determining the substantial differences. The paper is a contrastive study of: 1) formal and grammatical means of gender expression (the endings of the underlying forms, the case endings in Russian, the definite article in Bulgarian) and 2) the syntactic means of the additional expression of gender (concord of the attribute and predicate with the respective noun).
This paper considers the use of the polite forms of personal address in Bulgarian and Russian
Both in German and Bulgarian the collocations with functional verbs are formed from verbs that have lost their meaning and have a predominantly grammatical and syntactic function; the second element in German is a substantive in the accusative or prepositional case, while in Bulgarian it is a substantive in the function of direct or indirect (prepositional) object. These collocations form a semantic and syntactic unity and are used as predicates. The substantive in the combination may be accompanied by attributes. In that case the semantic and syntactic unity is broken up. If the substantive is determined, it functions as an object while the predicate is represented by the functional verb.
Glottometry, developed during the last ten years or so by the authors with the help of students from Moscow State University and the University of Sofia, is a set of methods for reducing a text into a measurable object of analysis. The measurability is achieved through the excerption (selection) of samples which contain either an equal quantity of words from the text (leximetrisation), or an equal quantity of speech sounds (phonometrisation). The leximetric samples are convenient for contrasting the statistical characteristics of texts in the same language. The phonometric samples are convenient for contrasting texts in different languages. Contrastive linguistics consists of studies which usually lead to statements about the more or less frequent occurrence of facts of a certain type in various texts (text corpora). Hence, contrastive linguistics is always based on implicit glottometric evaluations of the size of the contrasted texts. Explicit glottometry safeguards the linguists against hasty generalizations. It offers a clear hierarchy of the objects of analysis, based on their frequency. Through the application of statistical minimization of the contrasted texts glottometry makes it possible to achieve reliable results in the contrastive analysis.
The paper illustrates the use of the citational modifiers (the means of expressing citational forms) in Czech, Slovak, Upper Lusatian and Polish
This article is a continuation of a paper on citational modifiers in the South Slavic languages published in this journal, 1978/4. Proceeding from A. V. Bondarko’s theory of the functionalsemantic categories, the author has presented the citational modifiers
The functional-semantic category which, in its structure, is a functional-semantic field is adopted as the theoretical basis of the present study. The fundamental structural elements of the FS field are modifiers: nuclear (morphemes) and peripheral (lexical, syntactic, accentual, etc
quantitative analysis of the Spanish and Bulgarian consonantal phonemes has been made, based on the theoretical qualitative characteristics of the two systems established experimentally by E. Álarcos, A. Gullis and J. Fernandez for Spanish and by D. Tilkov and T. Bojadžiev for Bulgarian. The average individual and common distances between the phonemes and their distinctive features have been determined in order to establish the qualitative dimensions of the degree of coherence, function and symmetry of each of the systems and to illustrate the similarities and differences between the two languages. The results of this analysis are of both theoretical and practical significance and concern general as well as applied linguistics. As far as the general linguistic aspect is concerned the data substantiate the acceptable universal features of coherence and function of the language systems which, so far, have been only of a hypothetical nature. When applied to particular cases the results prove that the inner structure of the phonological component, i. e. the phonological system is determined by the distribution of the distinctive features. As far as applied linguistics is concerned it is necessary to distinguish between the elements of the system and those of the norm.
Through distribution and stratification, the author aims at a more accurate characterization of the various methods (contrastive and typological in particular) used in Slavonic language studies. The study has been prompted by the existing inconsistency in their formulation which is, to a certain extent, understandable. The starting point is the continuity and mutual complementation of all methods of study used so far. The relative difference between these methods stems from their attitude towards the presumed parent language prototype of the phenomena which is valid only for the comparative method. The Slavonic languages, being genealogically related, display a number of structures (zones and objects) which can be studied not only comparatively but also contrastively and typologically. Thus, for example, a number of contrastive studies of languages in contact during the post- Proto-Slavonic period, such as the Byelorussian and Russian akan’e, the Polish mazurzenie etc. differ from the typological interpretation of phenomena such as the system of obligatory՛ open syllables in the Proto-Slavonic period, the appearance of the genus virile in some Slavonic languages, the Bulgarian citational forms, etc. A potential relationship and interdependence are assumed to exist between descriptive, comparative and historical linguistics. The reliability of the contrastive method is enhanced by соmparison, while it sometimes loses validity if the historical principle is neglected. The typological method is becoming increasingly reliable since it applies to the essential parameters and universal categories of language and facilitates its dynamic characterology.
The paper is an attempt to specify some controversial problems that emerge in the formation of different corpora used for contrastive studies. The different possibilities for using translation texts are՝ examined and the necessity of using material from different functional varieties of the contrasted languages is substantiated. The chronological framework of the corpora is analysed, as well as some quantitative characteristics of the size, both of the separate excerpts and of the overall corpus.
The study compares Bulgarian and Finnish verbal nouns of three groups: I. nomina actionis which have the same meaning as the original verb and only differ syntactically from it; II. Nomina actionis denoting a more specific action, not being merely syntactic transformations of the verb: III. nomina acti. Both nouns I and II can be derived with the Bulgarian suffix -не, whose polysemy is shown by comparison with Finnish words, having different suffixes for those two meanings. The extremely productive suffixes -не in Bulgarian and -minen in Finnish have a close relation, partially similar to the inflectional paradigm of the verb in the respective languages. Both suffixes are used to derive nouns whose meanings are highly predictable. A general linguistic interdependence between morphological productivity and semantic regularity is assumed.
The notions of the discrete and continuous structure of speech are considered. The reasons for supporting the view of the discrete nature of the speech signals on the acoustic level are pointed out. Some practical rules are suggested for the segmentation of the spoken chain according to the characteristic changes of the frequency of the fundamental tone and the intensity of the sound wave.
Four different categories of questions for re-establishing communication in French and Bulgarian are discussed: 1) questions which require the speaker to repeat his whole statement; 2) questions which require repetition of part of the statement; 3) questions which require the speaker to confirm whether the person asking the question has understood his statement correctly; 4) questions which require the speaker to continue the statement and / or explain a separate word or word-combination of that statement. In classifying the questions for re-establishing communication, the communicative functions as well as the linguistic (lexical, syntactic and intonational) means of expressing these meanings have been taken into account.
Some basic problems related to the contrastive description of Russian sentences with independent predicative infinitive are treated. All the factors of a formal and semantic nature, relevant to the contrastive analysis of the Russian infinitival constructions and their functionally semantic equivalents in Bulgarian, are discussed. The system of means for rendering the semantic types of infinitival sentences is based on published translations. A frequency scale of the Bulgarian equivalents may be obtained when the qualitative parameters of these translations are taken into account. One of the semantic types of infinitival constructions, sentences with the meaning of necessity, is described as an illustration of the contrastive methods used in this paper.
Аn attempt is made to clarify the nature of the semantic model of phraseological units in sev83 eral languages (the semantic model of phraseological units with a numeral component in particular). Ten semantic models have been established, based on: violation of the system of numerals and of the exact number of somatisms, etc.; the rules of arithmetic (addition, division) and the division of an object into several parts. The semantic model is logically conditioned. Some phraseological units exhibit a vivid expressive markedness conditioned by the lack of logic (the number of the signified objects). Several semantic models with the meaning of „to be hungry“ and „smart in appearance“, are examined; they have similar semantic models in the various languages. The model is illustrated from Kabardian too. The semantic modelling of phraseological units is based on the common logical and associative processes of human thought which underlie the existence of identical and similar semantic models in various languages.
Syntactically-ambiguous nominal phrases with preposed modifiers in technical English are analysed within Immediate Constituent grammar framework, with respect to the translation of these phrases into Bulgarian. The latter are considered as elementary phrases, by means of which larger ambiguous structures of this type may be described as well.
The separate branches of comparative linguistics are classified according to the different kinds of similarities between languages which are the basis of comparative analysis. This tertium comparationis is defined depending on the theoretical aims of the study or its orientation towards a specific field of application. Five separate branches may be distinguished in general comparative linguistics: historical comparative linguistics, area linguistics, typology, comparative transferology and contrastive translatology (konfrontative Translatologie). Special attention is paid to the last three disciplines. The tendency to classify languages and linguistic structures into two fields of applied studies (foreign language teaching and translation practice) is proved to determine the presence of a different tertium comparationis, hence, the differences in the object of study. The comparison of these three branches reveals the intermediate position of comparative transferology. This branch is markedly orientated towards foreign language teaching since it is based upon an equivalent tertium comparationis both in the expression plane and the content plane (the phonological level is an exception). In typology, however, the tertium comparationis is optional and of secondary importance; in contrastive translatology (konfrontative Translatologie) it is altogether missing. Taking into consideration the basic chronological plane of study and the similarities between the respective tertia comparationis, the separate branches of comparative linguistics may be subsumed under two more general disciplines: comparative diachronic linguistics and comparative synchronic linguistics (contrastive linguistics).
The present attempt at the taxonomy of speech values is based on the most general theoretical principles of the unity of act, sound structure, social value and is a continuation of the author’s paper on the system of speech ways. The approach aims at establishing the universal features in languages as act-and-value systems. Taxonomy is assumed to be based not on words considered in the case as complex idiom-like structures, but on the semantization of speech acts and their respective features in the sound structures. The dependence of the values on the speech acts and ways comes to the fore: this approach is different from most existing semantic taxonomic theories which are based on the so-called conceptual meaning of words and are, therefore, hardly differentiated from taxonomies in the respective non-linguistic sciences. This dependence can be called an inner motivation of the sound structures and their respective values in contrast to the ideophonic and derivational motivation of the word. It is presumed that, in so far as the speech ways are universal. anguages will exhibit a greater uniformity when studied contrastively.
The study of the vocal element in the root structure of the „consonant-vocal-consonant“ type in Bulgarian and Russian by statistic methods shows that three vowels o, e, a are most frequently used. This is a characteristic feature of both Bulgarian and Russian, although the differences in the frequency of о and e in Russian and Bulgarian, when checked by the Student t-criterion, may prove considerable. O occurs more frequently in nominal stems than in verbal stems, which obviously proves that this vowel has preserved, to a certain extent, the old Indo-European semantic connection with nominalization, typical mainly of nouns. As far as the frequency of e is concerned, the results are rather unexpected. Usually, in Indo-European studies e marks action and is connected, first of all, with the verb. In the statistical data processing, the frequency of e in verbs has turned out to be higher than the frequency of e in nouns in both languages; however, the negligible deviation of the t-criterion test shows that there is no significant difference between the use of e in verbs and nouns. The vowel a in the roots of the type under investigation is practically equally frequent; it has also an even distribution in the verbal and nominal stems in the two languages.
The author studies contrastively the formal means used in Bulgarian and French in the organization of the chronological co-ordination as regards the introducing fact in subordinate object clauses. The study shows that within the framework of non-actuality, Bulgarian uses both the past tenses system (plusquamperfectum, imperfectum, futurum praeteriti) and the primary co-ordination system (perfectum, praesens, futurum), while French makes use only of the past co-ordination system. In the past, i. e. when the fact of the subordinate clause has ceased to be actual, the use of the grammatical tenses of the primary co-ordination system, though surprising to the foreigner, does not mean that Bulgarian is illogical; on the contrary, it shows its originality.
The acoustic parameters of the German [ə] vowel and its Bulgarian correspondences are discussed contrastively. Their phonological status in the two respective languages is explained in terms of spectral and functional characteristics. The results of the theoretical study have practical significance too. They can be used to assist Bulgarian learners in mastering the German [ə] vowel on the basis of its correspondences in Bulgarian.
The acoustic parameters of the German [ə] vowel and its Bulgarian correspondences are discussed contrastively. The phonological status in the two respective languages is explained in terms of spectral and functional characteristics. The results of the theoretical study have practical significance too. They can be used to assist Bulgarian learners in mastering the German [ə] vowel on the basis of its correspondences in Bulgarian.
The additional connotations expressed by the passive forms with sein in German and съм ‘to be’ in Bulgarian are compared. The voice meaning of the passive forms, the passive relation between the verbal person and the verbal action is assumed as fundamental. While in German there is a sharp delimitation in expressing process and result with the passive voice with werden and sein respectively, in Bulgarian the two passive form types are distinguished by a greater variety of connotations and they are mutually complementary. In addition to result, the passive forms with съм in Bulgarian may further denote process, iterativeness, etc. The meaning of the passive forms with sein is determined by both the semantics of the auxiliary verb and that of the past participle. The complex interaction between the elements of the analytical passive forms, their aspectual-temporal character in particular, affect the specific meaning of the respective forms in Bulgarian.
The knowledge of the structural and semantic correspondences and differences between the native and the foreign language is an important prerequisite for increasing the effectiveness of foreign language teaching by recognizing, in time, the errors due to interference factors. Traditional studies lack the complete reliability and objectivity of the registered primary information: conditions change, perceptions are momentary and the researcher’s approach is subjective. A hypothesis about the role of simultaneous translation as a psycho-catalyst of potential interference has been formulated on the basis of psycholinguistic analysis. The hypothesis has been tested experimentally, through electronic equipment with no contact at all, under equal conditions, which has ensured an objective recording of the primary information and of the errors and has ultimately created the conditions for their rigorous typological classification. The statistical data processing has proved the applicability of the conclusions to generalizations. The results are to be subjected to further tests aiming at an objective establishment of a system of the most typical differences between Bulgarian and French and the determination of the most effective methods used in language teaching.
The contrastive study of related or unrelated languages requires the separate consideration of every language level. Parallel elements may be present on certain language levels and be lacking on others. The problems considered in the present paper are related to the inherent acoustic characteristics of vowels: the fundamental frequency, the intensity and duration which, on the one hand, have a universal nature because of the articulatory apparatus common to all people; on the other hand, they reflect the specific features conditioned by the system of a particular language. The inherent acoustic characteristics of the Bulgarian vowels are compared to those of corresponding vowels of other languages with a view to establish the common tendencies and deviations in every language. The study of the inherent characteristics of vowels is a basic and indispensable stage in the experimental investigations of the suprasegmental units – stress and intonation of language.
This paper is an attempt to present the quantitative characteristics of the use of dative pronouns in various types of Russian and Bulgarian texts (drama, fiction, publicistic and political journalism, and scientific texts). When contrasted, the frequency of use of dative pronouns in the same styles of Russian and Bulgarian has shown that dative pronouns are more frequent in all the types of Bulgarian texts, since Bulgarian is characterized not only by the adverbial dative use of pronouns but also by their adnominal dative use. In this respect the two languages differ considerably. There is a marked difference between Russian and Bulgarian drama and fiction texts even when the frequency of the dative pronouns is compared in a function that is common to both languages, whereas publicistic and scientific texts do not differ in this case.
The study of two French translations of Hristo Botev’s poem „Struggle“ has led to the conclusion that the morphosyntactic structures of the original have been subjected to different kinds of transformations which depend above all on the characteristics of the target language, on the formal characteristics of the poem (rhyme, metrical structure, etc.), as well as on the personal preferences of the translator. On the content-plane three kinds of relations between the original and the translation are possible: complete correspondence, partial correspondence and lack of correspondence. The partial semantic correspondences which might be due to the impossibility of completely rendering the semantic structures of the original or to the personal preferences of the translator have proved most difficult to analyse.
Some problems related to contrastive linguistics (konfrontative Linguistic) are briefly reviewed in this paper. The nature and object of study of konfrontative linguistics are elucidated, as well as the conditions under which two languages, or more specifically, the systems of two or more languages, may be compared. The problem of the nature of konfrontative linguistics is related to the terminological opposition: konfrontative and contrastive. The differences between the two terms are pointed out as well as the possibilities of using the konfrontative method (the study of concrete phenomena in different languages, the use of konfrontative studies for the aims of typology, etc.). Closely linked with the description of language phenomena and konfrontative studies are the establishment of what in two languages can be compared. Language phenomena (phonetic, phonological, grammatical, lexical and stylistic) are comparable when they are linguistically relevant within the framework of a konfrontative comparative method applied to two or more languages. Different epistemological points of view arise in connection with the problem of comparability and they all affect the object of comparison (e. g. in generative grammar the object of comparison are the syntactic rules of the deep structure). In contrastive linguistics different theoretical concepts have been used and not infrequently they have been based on the process of language teaching and learning.