|Title||Опит за класификация на частните дисциплини в сравнителното езикознание|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||1978|
|Journal||Съпоставително езикознание / Сопоставительное языкознание / Contrastive linguistics|
The separate branches of comparative linguistics are classified according to the different kinds of similarities between languages which are the basis of comparative analysis. This tertium comparationis is defined depending on the theoretical aims of the study or its orientation towards a specific field of application. Five separate branches may be distinguished in general comparative linguistics: historical comparative linguistics, area linguistics, typology, comparative transferology and contrastive translatology (konfrontative Translatologie). Special attention is paid to the last three disciplines. The tendency to classify languages and linguistic structures into two fields of applied studies (foreign language teaching and translation practice) is proved to determine the presence of a different tertium comparationis, hence, the differences in the object of study. The comparison of these three branches reveals the intermediate position of comparative transferology. This branch is markedly orientated towards foreign language teaching since it is based upon an equivalent tertium comparationis both in the expression plane and the content plane (the phonological level is an exception). In typology, however, the tertium comparationis is optional and of secondary importance; in contrastive translatology (konfrontative Translatologie) it is altogether missing. Taking into consideration the basic chronological plane of study and the similarities between the respective tertia comparationis, the separate branches of comparative linguistics may be subsumed under two more general disciplines: comparative diachronic linguistics and comparative synchronic linguistics (contrastive linguistics).