А study of wide range of fiction, from short stories to tales of horror, from fairy-tales and romances to science fiction, to which the rather loose term 'fantastic' has been applied. Cutting across this wide field, Professor Brooke-Rose examines in a clear and precise way the essential differences between these types of narrative against the background of realistic fiction. In doing so, she employs many of the methods of modern literary theory from Russian formalism to structuralism, while at the same time bringing to these approaches a sharp critical intuition and sound common sense of her own. The range of texts considered is broad: from Poe and James to Tolkien; from Flann O'Brien to the American postmodernism. This book should prove a source of stimulation to all teachers and students of modern literary theory and genre, as well as those interested in 'fantastic' literature.
В систематичен ред. Книги, статии и рецензии 339 названия. Съдържа и списък на прегледаните източници.
The article presents а contrastive synchronic-diachronic analysis of the loanwords десèн and дизайн in Bulgarian, borrowed from French and English, whose respective source-words are dessin and design. It traces the semantic development of their common etymon in Italian, French and English. The specific nature of the semantic changes of each loanword is considered in connection with the semantic conditions offered by each receptor language.
The article presents an experimental study of the influence of the voiceless fricatives [s, f, S] on the sandhi elision of [t] in the past tense of English regular verbs. The results of the experiment show that such elision is very frequent. In most of the cases (over 80%) the past tense marker is elided and the pronunciation of the past tense verb form is homonymous with that of the present tense form. Since such elision affects the perception of the past tense by Bulgarian learners, the experimental results should be taken into account when teaching English to Bulgarians.
The authors propose а lexicographic conception allowing the creation of a French-Bulgarian argot-slang dictionary with a cognitive purpose. Linguodidactically it is designed as a source of language information for passive use. The dictionary will contain: argotisms ordered alphabetically, a translation of their standard meaning (if they have one), an interpretation translation of their argot meaning, and their functional equivalents. Difficulties are commented on, connected with the specificity of the two unequally developed sociolects belonging to unrelated and unequally stylistically structured languages, and the authors’ position is that they are not insurmountable.
The article presents а comparative analysis of sentences from Russian, Ukrainian and Bulgarian with the subjects denoting natural phenomena, wind and rain. The objective of the analysis is to determine the dependence in the expression of the types of the activity of verbs, which have the character of latent semantic categories, on functional and onomasiological relatedness of the subject-names. A high degree of communicative closeness in the realization of verbal activity in sentences in the three Slavonic languages is shown.
The study is а „classical“ contrastive acoustic research of some Fo-curves of German and Bulgarian. The perceptive estimation comes to one significant difference between both languages: German phrases have always two foci, and Bulgarian
On the basis of material from typologically different languages
The investigation proposed is part of an all-round experimental study of words with double stress in Bulgarian and Russian aimed at establishing which of the objective quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the speech sound are related to the perception of accentuation in closely related language systems with a dynamic stress. Attention is paid primarily to those acoustic parameters of vowels which are informative in distinguishing the primary from the secondary stress. The observation is restricted to the phonemes of the primary vowel triangle – a circumstance conditioning the relative character of the results obtained.
The investigation aims at establishing the concrete realization of words with two stresses in Bulgarian and Russian by using objective experimental phonetic methods in a consistent way. Language facts are understood in terms of the way stress characteristics of these words are perceived and recognized by native speakers of closely related language systems. The special features of the particular language are taken into account, underlying the specificity of the perceptive base and manifesting them in the evaluation of stress.
The article studies groups of geographic names and detoponymic adjectives in contemporary Russian and in contemporary Bulgarian which from the synchronic point of view are reverse derivatives, i. e. derived words which function as formative for words of which they derive. Among toponyms in both languages there are full (formal-semantic) and formal (only at the level of expression) reverse derivatives. Adjectives are only formal reverse derivatives. Reverse derivation in toponyms functions within the framework of double derivation, along with the lexico-semantic one. The lexical groups in Russian and Bulgarian in question are characterized by a high degree of parallelism.
The article discusses the problem of the influence of the verbal prefix on the meaning, valency and Aktionsart of the original verbs. This interrelationship is revealed on the basis of auf-prefixed verbs in German and their equivalents with из- in Bulgarian which signal the achievement of a result as a consequence of the accomplishment of a particular action of the verb. A three-way model of analysis is used including the logical, semantic and syntactic valency of the verbs under investigation.
The morphological analogue of Pretérito Perfeito Composto in Bulgarian is the past indefinite tense. Because of this structural identity in the translation into Bulgarian Pretérito Perfeito Composto is most often rendered through the past indefinite tense. To avoid this erroneous translation the article explains the semantic nature of Pretérito Perfeito Composto, viewed parallel to the Pretérito Perfeito Simples tense since the past indefinite tense is one of its translation equivalents. As Pretérito Perfeito Composto includes the moment of speech, its translation equivalents could only be the present and the imperfect.
The article gives а contrastive description of the consonant systems of Standard Bulgarian and Byelorussian taking into account the paradigmatic and the functional characteristics of consonant phonemes of both languages. Attention is paid to the sufficiently essential differences in the functioning of consonants in the languages under investigation bearing in mind the considerable structural similarities of the Bulgarian an Byelorussian consonant systems.
The article presents a new approach to palatal and affricate consonants in Czech and Bulgarian.A table of the consonants of the two languages is presented, followed by a discussion. This article by prof. S. Ivanchev is published posthumously and is supplemented with notes and comments by Bozhil Nikolov, Nadеzhda Kуtova and Miroslav Yanakiev.
The main problem considered in this paper is the possibility of Bulgarian verbs to join да-constructions, да-clauses and че-clauses. That possibility is treated as a syntactic feature, necessary for the description of the verbs with the purpose of their inclusion in the combinatorial dictionary for a natural language processor. The Bulgarian verbs are analysed in comparison with the corresponding Russian verbs and their possibility to join infinitive or subordinate clauses, included in the complex sentences by the conjunctions что, чтобы and как.
This note offers some comments on Svetomir Ivanchev’s article Особен поглед върху чешкия и българския консонантизъм [A peculiar view on Czech and Bulgarian consonantism] published in Contrastive Linguistics, 1991,6, 5–9.
A comparative lexico-typological description is made of a characteristic type of verb-temporal forms with the semantic property ‘spend a particular calendar period of time’ (зимувам, денувам, нощувам, пладнувам). The productivity of this model in two standard languages is considered
The article describes the Bulgarian and Swedish vowel systems, first separately in each language, then in a contrastive way. The prosodic system in both languages is also analysed and contrasted. The author shows that both the vowel and the prosodic systems are much more complicated in Swedish than in Bulgarian. This fact creates some difficulties in the field of teaching Swedish to Bulgarian speakers. The paper shows how these difficulties can be surmounted and gives concrete methodical recommendations.
This note offers some comments on Svetomir Ivanchev’s article Особен поглед върху чешкия и българския консонантизъм [A peculiar view on Czech and Bulgarian consonantism] published in the same issue of Contrastive Linguistics, 1991,6, pp. 5–9.
The formation of adverb neologisms in Slavic languages (of the type Rus. мокро, забывчиво, стеклянно, Bulg. унизително, военно, театрално) is a morphological phenomenon related to the processes of syntactic derivation. Contamination, shifting and tightening are observed as such in the article. The realization of these syntactic prerequisites for the formation of these adverbs in any language occurs in correspondence with its structural-semantic conditions.
The article discusses the possibilities in Bulgarian and Russian to express command with a perfective verb in the negative. Although the phenomenon is peripheral in the grammatical systems of both languages, the examples adduced show possibilities to express various meanings and nuances (ban, warning, request, fear, ability/inability, permissibility / impermissibility, etc.).
The article discusses certain aspects of the pragmatic valency of some verbs in German and Bulgarian. Some basic notions of other models are discussed by the author, who proposes his own formulations for some of them. On the basis of some examples an analysis of pragmatic valency is made. Phenomena such as the perspectivization of certain verb determinants, thematization, and strong (respectively weak) presupposition of different language levels are considered in the contrastive domain.
In the temporal systems of Bulgarian and Romanian the Aorist and the Perfect are the two verbal forms that render the action or the event as an accomplished fact in the past. Despite the common temporal and aspectual characteristics, they are distinguished by a number of semantic and functional peculiarities which are directly reflected in their uses. In order to determine the interaction between the two verbal tenses which occupy the same position upon the prime axis of orientation, it is necessary that they be analysed separately in each language. The analysis provides the basis for seeking the convergences and the divergences between the functional contexts of the Aorist and the Perfect in Bulgarian and Romanian. The results can be very useful for the correct rendering of the temporal forms in translation.
Problems are dealt with in connection with the semantic analysis of some slang terms in marbles game. On this basis an attempt is made to reveal their etymology, whereby some universal tendencies in the development of the slang lexicon are pointed out. Also pointed out is the major role played by the caricature-parody turn in the evolution of youth slang, which in fact is its active (generative) centre creating ambivalence, enantiosemy, ambiguity, etc. Semantic analysis of the term абе is made, viewed in the sphere of the ‘food-money’ metaphor, and the development of this metaphor in French and in Bulgarian is followed.
The article discusses the basic problems of the characteristics of studying Russian word-for- mation by speakers of closely related languages – Bulgarian, Serbo-Croatian, Czech, Slovak and Polish. Criteria are defined for the choice of the word-formation material for practical les- sons; typical difficulties in the process of acquisition of complex units of the word-formation system of Russian by the foreign learners are outlined. Concrete methodological recommenda- tions are offered for the use of a given didactic material in the practice of teaching Russian as a
During the spring of 1720 the Jerusalem Patriarch Chrysanthos Notaras visited a number of towns and villages in South Bulgaria, gathered voluntary contributions and wrote down names for prayerful remembrance in his book. This manuscript, kept in the library of the metochion of the Holy Sepulchre in Istanbul under No 237, was published by Penelopa Stalou in Athens in 1984. The anthroponyms studied in the present article bear witness to the linguistic variety in the South Bulgarian lands during the first half of the 18th century.