В систематичен ред. Книги, статии и рецензии, около 388 названия. Съдържа и списък на прегледаните източници.
Based on the functional-semantic field theory, this study has as its object the functional-semantic field of locativity, each separate group of central (grammatical) exponents of locativity being elaborately studied. The structure of the field, the hierarchic set-up of its component elements as well as their correspondences across Russian, Bulgarian and German are examined in detail.
o far Bulgarian linguistics has looked for traces of Proto-Bulgarian primarily in the Čuvaš language as a mediator. The authors of the paper abandon this approach and investigate the linguistic and historical connection between Bulgarian and the Balkar-Karačaev language. As a result of that novel approach a number of new words, both from the onomastic and non-onomastic classes have been added to the established Proto-Bulgarian ones: bălgarin băalkăar, măalkăar, kopanec, čeren tatarin, čavka, tajče, Tangra-Tejri, Atila, Asparuh, Šibil, Kospartov and Šabla. It was found that for the purposes of defining more accurately the Proto-Bulgarian lexical layer, the Karačaevo-Balkar language offers a number of advantages as compared to Čuvaš. Evidence was also found to substantiate the claim that the Karačaevo-Balkar language is the most suitable mediator for studies of the Rumanian substratum of the Bulgarian language.
The paper studies a new formation, parallel in the Slavic and Baltic languages: the Prefect tense forms which consist of the auxiliary verb ‘be’ and the Past Prefect Active Participle.
Some of the Future tense meanings, defined as temporal, are studied by means of a componential semantic analysis. These are also considered with regard to their translation equivalents in French. The statistical data from the working corpus are found to tally fully with the conclusion that the Future tense has the highest distribution and communicative significance among the tenses able to express futurity in Bulgarian. This fact along with the inevitable impact of interference should be taken into account when teaching the French Future tenses to Bulgarians.
This is an examination of the most typical phonetic and phonological errors observed in the interlingual consonantal system of the Spanish speaking learners of Bulgarian. The study is based on a corpus of 7500 errors. The analysis shows that the Spanish Bulgarian interlanguage has specific features of its own resulting mainly from the substantial differences between the consonantal systems of the two languages. The conclusions drawn will help to choose the right teaching strategy in corrective phonetics courses.
The paper discusses several adverbs and adverbial phrases in Bulgarian in contrast with their translation equivalents in German. Plenty of material is used to illustrate the observed syntagmatic variability and accordingly, the great diversity of lexical means used to render the variants from one language into the other. One of the objectives of the study which examines the adverbs in Bulgarian and German on a contrastive basis is to find out the most suitable form of adverb entries in the bilingual Bulgarian-German dictionary.
This is an attempt to identify comparison in contrast with similar language phenomena. A set of sentences defined traditionally as ‘comparative’ have been analysed and reconsidered for this purpose. The syntactic and semantic procedures employed uncovered the fact that apparent resemblance conceals different semantic relations: graded comparison, similitude and quantitative specification. Some factors determining the occurrence of the comparative syntagm as a whole and of its various components have been discussed. In conclusion the analysis has shown that the term ‘comparison’ ought to be specified to avoid any inconsistent use in the literature.
The paper deals with generic noun phrases in German and Bulgarian. An attempt has been made to specify through comparison the means employed in the two languages to express generic meaning as well as to set up the paradigms of the translation correspondences of those means. Some attention has been given to the conditions determining the choice of a translation equivalent. In the study of the synonymous parallel means for the expression of genericness a number of issues bearing on the classification of generic noun phrases in Bulgarian are raised.
Metonymy is considered as a type of rederivation in the paper. The metonymic senses of polysemantic words and metonymic homonyms are the result of the univerbalization of certain syntactic units. On the content plane the derivatives coincide with the semantics of the syntactic units that had generated them, while their plane of expression is the result of rederivation.The initial lexical unit is a member of the respective syntactic unit or the generating word in oblique syntactic position: e. g. Tvărdica village
The author substantiates the assumption that the penetration in the language of those archaic elements of the Hungarian Christian terminology which could only have been borrowed from the tongue of the Orthodox Slavs can be dated as far back as the Byzantine mission to the Magyars in the mid-l0th century. The Greek missionaries are believed to have used Old Bulgarian to communicate with the Magyars, who had been in contact with Slavs since their settlement in the region of the Carpathian basin. A view to this effect has already been voiced in Hungarian historical publications and seems quite plausible within the framework of all the cultural and historical circumstances. However, it obviously requires further, purely linguistic, evidence
The paper deals with the similarities and differences between Bulgarian and Romanian personal pronouns, established by means of fifteen binary differential features.
The negative pronoun most common functions are dealt with contrastively and from a pragmatic point of view. Those stylistically significant types of use have been analysed in which the pronouns function not as substitutes but as exponents of the speaker’s emotional and expressive attitude towards the object of speech. These pronouns may be divided into three groups in terms of the function expressed: a) pronouns actualizing the negative element in general negative sentences; b) pronouns, exponents of subjective assessment; c) pronouns functioning as abstract notions based on the negative component of their meaning. The similarities and differences between the Russian and Bulgarian pronouns from the adopted point of view are thrown into relief.
From a diachronic perspective, the paper discusses some parallels in the origin and development of the forms expressing future actions related to a point of orientation in the present and in the past in two Romance and one Slavic languages: Old Spanish, Old Portuguese and Old Bulgarian. There is a predominating view in Bulgarian linguistics that the development of future tense structures belongs to the Balkan Sprachbund phenomena. However, the analogies in the historical development of the Future Tense forms, parallel in the three languages belonging to two different groups of the Indo-European family seem to suggest that the development of the Future is a phenomenon with very deep roots. The present study not only aims at revealing the typological similarities and differences existing within the subsystem of grammatical means used to express subsequent action in the three languages but also tries to draw some conclusions valid for the development of the Future as a category in the Indo-European languages in general.
This paper deals with the gravity of some lexical errors in the performance of Bulgarian adult learners of English. The psychometric method of equal-appearing intervals (a seven-point scale) has been used in the measurement of one hundred most typical errors with international words. The errors are evaluated by twenty Bulgarian teachers of English and one English native speaker. The results arrived at quite clearly indicate the two main approaches, communicative and normative, applied in the evaluation of the experimental data. The communicative approach proved to be the predominant one. Thus, errors affecting the lexico-semantic structure of the word obtained the highest scale values. Occasional unreasonably high scale values with normative deviations are most likely to be attributed to factors like irritability, non-acceptability, etc. Lastly, the results point to some conclusions concerning the status and hierarchy of the components in the semantic structure of the word.
The paper considers a group of Russian dialect words with Old Bulgarian nepolnoglasje (vocally reduced root morpheme). The lexical units are distinguished mainly through contrast of the semantic coverage of the corresponding word families in Old Bulgarian and Russian but evidence from other Slavic languages is also produced. If meaning occurs in Russian (or East Slavic) but is missing in Old Bulgarian (and usually in the other South Slavic languages as well) the semantic correlates with the Old Bulgarian vocally reduced root are considered more likely to be of Russian origin as their counterparts having the Russian polnoglasje (full root morpheme). No vocally reduced forms have been evidenced in either Old Russian manuscripts or Modern Literary Russian which appears to corroborate that the considered items must most probably be non-standard developments.
In a contrastive plane, the paper examines the sequence of tenses in subordinate clauses in Modern Italian and Bulgarian. Attention is focused on the differences which exist between the two languages with respect to the sequence of tenses in subordinate complement and subject clauses, as well as on the most likely reasons for some of the differences.
The English finite verb analytical forms are examined in contrast with Bulgarian and some structural, semantic and diachronic differences are presented. The temporal and modal meaning of the English verb structure is explicated in an independent word which can be used successfully as a common ground for a contrastive study of prosody as a functional sentence perspective marker. The highly functional prosody of the English analytical verb structure is found to correspond to two Bulgarian prosodic patterns which conform to the Bulgarian norms of accentuation. This falls into line with the role of intonation in the two contrasted languages.
The co-ordination possibilities of the Bulgarian indicative tenses in object clauses and in the various periods and sectors of the metaphoric temporal line are contrasted to the corresponding possibilities of the French indicative tenses. Thus a framework is set up which can be used to model a rather complex item of Bulgarian syntax.
The paper discusses several adverbs and adverbial phrases in Bulgarian in contrast with their translation equivalents in German. Plenty of material is used to illustrate the observed syntagmatic variability and, accordingly, the great diversity of lexical means used to render the variants from one language into the other. One of the objectives of the study, which examines the Adverb in Bulgarian and German on a contrastive basis, is to find out the most suitable form for adverb entries in the bilingual Bulgarian-German dictionary.
This is an attempt at a synchronic analysis of the so-called mono-collocable words, occurring as components of only one or few phrasemes, in Modern Bulgarian and Czech. Their form, meaning, function and collocability are considered in succession. The issues of category membership and place in the language system are given due attention. Some diachronic aspects are also tackled. In addition to the synchronic and diachronic analysis of the mono-collocable words, the similarities and dissimilarities observed in the Bulgarian and Czech material are thrown into relief.
В систематичен ред. Книги, статии и рецензии, около 388 названия. Съдържа и списък на прегледаните източници.
The paper deals with the necessity of a working contrastive model of word-formation analysis across the Slavonic literary languages. The author considers the working stages in setting up such a model, the likely underlying theoretical postulates and the obligatory pre-definition of the basic classificational units. An attempt is also made by means of a few exemplary word-formation types to show how and to what extent Case Grammar methodology may be used in a contrastive word-formation study.