Like Carl Darling Buck's Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin (1933), this book is an explanation of the similarities and differences between Greek and Latin morphology and lexicon through an account of their prehistory. It also aims to discuss the principal features of Indo-European linguistics. Greek and Latin are studied as a pair for cultural reasons only; as languages, they have little in common apart from their Indo-European heritage. Thus the only way to treat the historical bases for their development is to begin with Proto-Indo-European. The only way to make a reconstructed language like Proto-Indo-European intelligible and intellectually defensible is to present at least some of the basis for reconstructing its features and, in the process, to discuss reasoning and methodology of reconstruction (including a weighing of alternative reconstructions). The result is a compendious handbook of Indo-European phonology and morphology, and a vade mecum of Indo-European linguistics – the focus always remaining on Greek and Latin. The non-classical sources for historical discussion are mainly Vedic Sanskrit, Hittite, and Germanic, with occasional but crucial contributions from Old Irish, Avestan, Baltic, and Slavic.
Allen Brent examines the significance of the Hippolytan events in the life of the Roman Church in the early third century. Developing the thesis of at least two authors in the Hippolytan corpus, he proposes a new, redactional explanation of the relation between these different authors and the theological and social tensions to which their work bears witness. Brent reconstructs a picture of the community that contextualizes both the Hippolytan literature and in particular the Statue, for which he proposes a new interpretation as a community artefact though universally misjudged as a monument to an individual.
Tertullian's relationship with Callistus is finally re-assessed. This work is thus an important contribution to new understandings of a period critical both for the development of Church Order and embryonic Trinitarian Orthodoxy.
Reading by Starlight explores the characteristics in the writing, marketing and reception of science fiction which distinguish it as a genre.
Reading by Starlight includes close readings of paradigmatic cyberpunk texts and writings by science fiction novelists and theorists including Isaac Asimov, Arthur C. Clarke, Brian Aldiss, Patrick Parrinder, Kim Stanley Robinson, John Varley, Roger Zelazny, William Gibson, Fredric Jameson and Samuel R. Delaney.
The comparison between the aspect systems of a Slavic and a Romance language raises a number of theoretical and practical problems. It requires a precise and unified use of terminology, which is unfortunately not always the case, especially in French. The automatic transfer of the terms „perfective/imperfective“ from Bulgarian to French is practically impossible because the aspectual systems of the two languages function in a different way. In Bulgarian aspect is expressed by a pair of perfective and imperfective verbs, while in French it functions through two symmetrical subsystems of simple and complex verb tenses. The aspect implied in the lexical meaning of the verb is strongly influenced by the syntactic context. The article proves the necessity of a rigid distinction between aspect and tense; it discusses the question of precision in naming the verb tenses, the terms do not always reflect the linguistic reality. This is valid for both languages discussed.
The literature on Slavic phonetics reveals a controversy about certain vowels and consonants. Dictionaries typically do not give phonetics, or if they do, it is not standard IPA. This creates problems for both researchers and teachers. These difficulties are met here by the attempt to give more careful description of articulations, and provide a better descriptive analysis than is presently available. A system is presented for the consistent and precise location of vowels. In addition, a standard articulation chart and standard descriptions are provided. This extended IPA system is used as the basis of phonetic descriptions, analysis and comparison. Emphasis is on the specific case or paradigm method of the philosophy of science so that numerous examples must of necessity be given. This contrasts with the usual article on phonology, which provides the fewest number or examples required to support a general or universal hypothesis. The examples here provide data for phonology, further research, comparative and contrastive phonetics, as well as to aid the language teacher and learner.
The work discusses in a contrastive aspect the peculiarities of the quantitative definiteness of the nouns in Portuguese and in Bulgarian. As far as the quantification of counting and the quantification of measuring are determined, an analysis is made of the subclasses of absolute and relative quantification. The specific displays of the separate quantifiers are connected with the name’s semantics, as well as with the process of quantification, pluralization and determination, one or another process dominating in different context conditions.
The article is devoted to the semantic characteristics of a numerous group of derivative nouns denoting places in the Slavic languages. On the basis of language material from Bulgarian, Polish and Russian, the author aims at combining the traditional word-formation method with elements of lexico-semantic analysis, so as to reveal the basic formal and semantic indications 26 of the discussed lexemes. This is part of a larger work which analyses the lexemes of locative meaning in the compared languages, and which finally aims at achieving a generalized model of the word-formation category considered here.
In Bulgarian and in Czech there exist everyday words or word combinations related to the modern way of life of the two nations, the only difference in the usage being that one of the languages expresses a given notion with a simple lexeme, while the other uses a combination of two or more lexemes. Such differences have appeared in the historical development of the languages and they exist in each pair of compared languages. This study aims at a comparison between Bulgarian verbs and their Czech equivalents, expressed by word combinations. The relations between the simple and complex lexemes given here prove that not only the separate word but also the combinations of words with specific lexical meaning can be a basic sign (formal-semantic) unit in the vocabulary stock.
There are multiple functional differences between the German Akkusativ des Inhalts (einen gerechten Kampf kämpfen), the Stabreim and the Bulgarian „verbal word-group“ with a direct object of the same grammatical root (своя гален блян бленува), the last being only a partial case of a wide-spread linguistic phenomenon. The quoted Bulgarian word-groups with numerous variants can be related to the Old German rhyming with the same initial consonants of the following words
The article is а part of contrastive semasiologic analysis of lexicosemantic groups with main word (identification) twenty-four hours in Russian and Bulgarian. Note: There are single words with the meaning of ‘twenty-four hours’ in both languages; the corresponding groups consist of words, referring to the parts of day and night. We try to combine traditional linguistic methods and empirical techniques. The psycholinguistic experiment consists of three tasks: to draw ‘24 hours’; to divide the time period into parts, name them and give their time reference; a free association test.
The article treats in a contrastive perspective the language means used to indicate the speaker (sender) in the two languages regarding their semantic-pragmatic value in the speech act. The basic difference between Bulgarian and Vietnamese is that in Bulgarian the speaker is indicated mainly by the first person personal pronouns and the first person verb endings, while in Vietnamese the 1st person personal pronoun system is much more varied, there are no verb endings, but the names of relationships and the speaker’s personal name play an important role; these two means have only a peripheral usage in Bulgarian.
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The article treats the question of the earliest usage of the terms system and structure concerning language, and also the different content implied in them. The author emphasizes that the idea about language as a systematic whole does not contradict the thesis about the asystematic facts and processes existing in it.