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The article is an attempt to reveal certain theoretically interesting aspects of so-called mixonyms like touriste + aristocrate → touristocrate that have only recently become an object of investigation. After a discussion of the terminological and the conceptual apparatus for the study of mixonyms, the authors present a short classification and dwell more extensively on the role of homophony in their formation. Homophony is seen as a consecutively destructuralizing and structuralizing element which allows a pseudomotivated transition from single meaning to parallel polysemy.
Problems concerning aspect and tense in Russian and French are discussed. Special attention is paid to actual (aspectual) present tense. With respect to the syntactic pattern it is assumed that the marked aspectual character of the Russian verb and the small number of tense forms has something to do with the comparative uniformity of morpho-syntactic means; in French, conversely, the various tenses determine its great morpho-syntactic complexity.
The basic values of the French passé simple and the Bulgarian aorist, on the one hand, and the French passé composé and the Bulgarian perfect, on the other hand, are compared. In French the aspectual distinction between completedness and noncompletedness is not grammaticalized, in contrast to Bulgarian where there is a morphological opposition between perfective and imperfective aspect. The tenses of the first pair always express an event. In the second pair, passé composé can express an event (in the sphere of the past) and a resultative situation (in the discourse sphere), whereas the perfect expresses a resultative situation in both spheres.
A psycholinguistic experiment in the paradigm of multidimensional scaling aimed at the establishment of perceptual-cognitive structures of seven six-syllable intonation patterns in French was made. Each test sentence was evaluated in terms of 42 acoustic parameters. The readings were subjected to a multivariate statistical analysis whereby three independent acoustic axes were derived. The data from the perceptual experiment for scaling the same sentences on the basis of similarity by French native speakers were firstly processed according to hierarchicalscheme clustering algorithms and, secondly, according to the procedures of multidimensional scaling. A three-dimensional structure of perceptual-cognitive space of French native speakers for the seven intonation patterns was established. A high correlation between the acoustic and the perceptual-cognitive axes was found which is interpreted as a corroboration of some hypotheses formulated in the framework of a three-component model of speech perception.
The present article raises the problem of rendering Slavic and Proto-Bulgarian proper names into Italian, for the first time on the diachronic level. The corpus was derived from Mauro Orbini’s historical study Il Regno degli Slavi written in Italian and published in Pesaro in 1601. An extensive analysis is made of the various graphic solutions registered in the text. These solutions are especially interesting for they are a first attempt at a systematic transcription of Slavic sounds and combinations of sounds without any parallel in Italian.
Besides sentence structure, valency as a word property also influences text structure both formally and pragmatically. The pragmatics of communication should not be ignored when discussing the syntactic and semantic features of a linguistic system. Therefore it seems reasonable to accept the existence of both optional and obligatory parts of a sentence. These are determined by the type of text chosen. The so-called prototype context is relevant to the type and number of parts of a sentence. The connection between valency theory and prototype semantics is quite suitable for foreign language teaching purposes since it puts a special emphasis on definite communicative situations.
The article is part of a larger study of the semantics of future tenses in French contrasted with the Bulgarian future tense. The basic modal meanings of the French periphrastic (complex) future tense (aller + infinitive), which can express personal involvement of the speaker or intention
The article discusses some questions concerning the essence and status of interjections. The author subsumes these lexemes under the general category of sentence-like words with respect to which they are an expressive subcategory. Some terminological investigations are carried out and an attempt is made at a classification of expressive sentence-like words from different points of view.
The article aims to show some parallels and differences in the use of един and un, as determiners in Bulgarian and Romanian. Their typical function within the NP in the two languages, viz to express specific indefiniteness, and the existence of a zero determiner as a marker of nonspecific indefiniteness are pointed out. An attempt is made to determine the role of един and un in the determiner systems of the two languages.
The article presents an experimental study of the perception of past tense regular verbs by Bulgarians learning English in cases of sandhi elision of the marker. The experiment was carried out at two levels (advanced and beginning) in a total of six groups, with three students at every level. The results, subjected to a three-factor dispersion analysis at the Laboratory of Experimental Linguistics at the Institute for Foreign Students, show that the percentage of the correctly determined verb forms is lower in cases of marker elision than in cases of its pronunciation.
The frequency of use of pronouns in French and in Bulgarian in different stylistic registers is investigated. The data derived is of significance for the study of the morphosyntactic characteristics of stylistic registers in the two languages, but they can also be used to put a national teaching complex in French on an objective basis.
erbs derived of the roots говор-, каз- and рек- in Russian, Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian are investigated. Their common meanings in the three languages are fixed as well as the differences typical of the separate languages. Inherent and adherent meanings of these verbs and their common derivational power typical of each language are determined. In identical derivational patterns language evolution frequently leads to the occurrence of interlingual homonymy.
The contrastive analysis of the French conditionnel and its Bulgarian equivalents drew the attention to the fact that significant differences are observed in the discourse realization of the French form and one of its basic equivalents in Bulgarian
The Bulgarian fricative velar consonant [x] is compared to Arabic fricative consonants of the sound type [x]. The comparison is made on the basis of observations and a corpus of errors in the teaching of Bulgarian to Arabs and of Arabic to Bulgarians. The Bulgarian velar consonant phoneme [x] and especially its variants are perceived by Arabs learning Bulgarian rather differently, i. e. Arabs often take its variants to be different phonemes according to the phonemic structure of Arabic. The comparison is connected with the teaching of both Bulgarian and Arabic.
The paper contains some information about the language situation in Afghanistan and the role of the Dari language in the country. A description of the vowel phonemes of Dari is given according to bibliographical sources and some attention is paid to the differences of opinion with respect to the number and quality of these vowels. On the basis of a short phonological characterization of the Bulgarian vowel system an attempt is made to compare the two systems. Possible reasons for deviations from the Bulgarian norm in the perception and production of Bulgarian vowels by Afghan students learning Bulgarian in a mother-tongue environment are given.
The article presents the microsystems of animalistic images with the central images of dog and cat in English and Bulgarian and on the basis of examples reveals the reasons for similarities and contrasts of the metaphoric meanings in both languages.
The paper discusses the origin of secondary prepositions derived from open-class words in Czech and Bulgarian. After clarifying the historical prerequisites and the lexico-syntactic characteristics of the separate parts of speech, the logico-semantic loci and the semantico-functional conditions for the transition of adverbs, nouns, verbs, pronouns and numerals to prepositions are determined. Changes occurring in open-class words on the syntactic and the lexical level are discussed. A classification of secondary prepositions according to their origin is proposed in view of the role of the initial words in the meaning of the preposition.
The present article is a study of the most typical difficulties and mistakes made by Bulgarian learners in mastering the pronunciation of the French consonants  and [г]. Using the contrastive analysis of these sounds of the two phonetic systems (French and Bulgarian) and of their distribution in discourse, the author suggests models of exercises for phonetic correction.
The paper explores the current use of certain derivational formants in feminine gender nouns (of the type професорка/profesorka, лекарка/lekarka) in some Slavonic languages: Bulgarian, Russian, Polish, Slovak, Czech, Slovene and Serbo-Croatian. The highest frequency of this derivational pattern was found in Czech, Slovak, Slovene and partly in Serbo-Croatian. In Russian, on the other hand, the pattern is only colloquial. Bulgarian and Polish are borderline cases. The reasons for the difference in the range of the phenomenon are of an internal-systematic nature and could be clarified in a more thorough investigation.
The article discusses problems of the study of intonation on written material. Intonation variants of short stories by Čudomir in Bulgarian and in Russian are compared. The approach for the description of text intonation in intonation structures corresponds to the generalized analysis of intonation in the two texts presented in the article. Possibilities for the rendering of intonation and syntactic features of Bulgarian translations into Russian are argued for.
On the basis of the independent binary opposition between subordinate tensed clauses with a semantic-morphological future reference, in which the meaning of futurity is expressed by future tenses, on the one hand, and the subordinate tensed clauses with only a semantic future reference conveyed by present tense verb forms, on the other hand, an analysis is made of the basic meanings of the most typical subordinating conjunctions (quand, lorsque, tant que, pendant que) and mostly of the alternation of verb tenses and moods on a comparative basis with Bulgarian. The great variety of forms in French is shown in contrast to their low variability in Bulgarian subordinate tense predicate units.
The article discusses some aspects of contemporary geographical terminology; similarities and differences between French and Bulgarian are shown. Changes in the system of geographical concepts in recent years are listed; the most important sources for the replenishment of geographical terminology and the typical term-formation patterns are given.
The article deals, in a contrastive framework, with the subject in initial position used with the German indefinite article and with един in Bulgarian in generic utterances. Correspondence conditions are established. The conclusion is made that under certain conditions един can also be used in correspondence to the German indefinite article in generic utterances of a classificatory nature. The debatable question about the presence or absence of an indefinite article in Bulgarian is discussed.
The paper discusses the use of the dative pronominal clitics in Bulgarian and Romanian as one of the grammatical means of expressing possession. It is an attempt to outline the major aspects of the contrastive study of a linguistic phenomenon not to be traced in the other Slavic and Romance languages, but attested in other Balkan languages as well. Although the dative clitics have not been introduced into the system of the Romanian possessive pronouns, as is the case with Bulgarian, the results of the analysis point out to a great number of semantic and functional similarities.
The article discusses the problem of exonyms (traditional geographic names) in the translation process. A procedure for making up a dictionary of some more important exonyms in the toponymic nomenclatures of Slavic languages (Bulgarian, Russian, Polish, Czech, and SerboCroatian) is described. Attention is also paid to exonyms in Romance and Germanic languages.
The article is an attempt at an ideogenetic investigation on a contrastive basis of Bulgarian and French verb idioms with an existential meaning aimed at an outline of similarities and differences in the specific linguistic reflection of the world.
The paper is an attempt to establish some basic regularities in the quantitative characterization of objects and phenomena on the word-formation and the syntactic level. Distinguished and discussed are four types of quantity-defining relations: (1) quantitative-substantive-possessive; (2) quantitative-metral; (3) quantitative-temporal, and (4) quantitative-directional. On the basis of data analysed, some basic semantic and formal restrictions in the expression of quantity characteristics in Polish and Bulgarian are defined contrastively; possible directions for general linguistic research are pointed out in connection with the problem of reflecting the picture of the world by speakers of different languages.
The article considers Russian simple sentences with the preposition несмотря на and Bulgarian simple sentences with the preposition въпреки. Lexico-semantic groups of nouns with which these prepositions combine are defined; the role of the adverb of concession for the communicative structure of the sentence is clarified; some regularities in Russian-Bulgarian and Bulgarian-Russian translation are established.
The article discusses Russian constructions with the стоило... как, стоило ... и structural element and their functional equivalents in Bulgarian. Connecting devices are compared, as well as the ways to explicate temporal and conditional meanings (the presence of actualizers, i. e. restrictive particles and adverbial actualizers with a temporal meaning). The ways to explicate the subject in the Russian and in the Bulgarian sentences are compared. Problems concerning the synonymy of syntactic entities are also dwelt upon.
The purpose of the article is to make a comparison of the semantic and syntactic valency of two pairs of verbs in French and Bulgarian
It is the purpose of this paper to analyse what is considered to be the most typical phonetic and phonological errors made by students whose mother tongue is Spanish while reproducing the Bulgarian vocal system. The study is based on a corpus of 3500 typical errors. It indicates that the Bulgarian interlanguage of the Spanish speaking students under research has some specific characteristics mainly due to differences between the vocal systems that have been juxtaposed. The conclusions drawn are expected to assist the process of correcting phonetic usage and practice.
This is a transcript of a lecture entitled On the Phoneme, given in Russian by Roman Jakobson in lecture hall 272 of the University of Sofia before an audience of over 800 students, lecturers and participants in the 5th Congress of Slavists, held in Sofia in September 1963. The text was recorded, transcribed and edited by M. Yanakiev, N. Kotova and Zh. Boyadzhiev.
The term ‘word-formation adaptation’ covers all processes of formal and functional inclusion of borrowings into the derivational system of the invaded language through derivational affixes. In the Slavic languages German lexical borrowings fall under the influence of adaptation processes: suffixation, morphemic substitution, morphemic correlation, adsuffixation and suffixal attraction.
The article emphasizes the importance of Rumanian lexical data for the investigation of some Bulgarian dialect expressions. Some Rumanian lexemes preserving West Bulgarian vocalization of Old Bulgarian ú > о are considered. Examples are given in which Bulgarian e > Rumanian i and Bulgarian ъ > Rumanian í in the process of borrowing. The phonetic relationships between Rumanian words and non-preserved Middle Bulgarian forms are described.
A peculiarity of the history of Standard Byelorussian is its development under the conditions of written bilingualism and even multilingualism. Early Byelorussian-Church Slavonic bilingualism in the second part of the sixteenth century was complemented by Polish and Latin which gradually pushed aside Byelorussian in the middle of the seventeenth century. After the unification of Byelorussia and Russia Polish and Latin went out of use and the Russian language became dominant in Byelorussia. At the same time a new Standard Byelorussian began to appear on a folk-dialect basis along which it preserved, especially in its lexicon, traces of former interrelationships with the other languages.
A lexicological and a lexicographical interpretation of 147 lexemes typical of an unknown and so far undescribed Bulgarian idiom of a group of villages in Aegean Macedonia is given. The material was extracted from Y. V. Evangelopulos’ dialectological work Лексические особенности новогреческого языка в Западной Македонии (1974). The lexical material in question was expressly defined by Y. V. Evangelopulos as belonging to the Βουργαροχωρια villages, whose idiom is set apart as something independent of the rest of the Northern Greek idioms. Careful reading of the material shows that this, in fact, is a Bulgarian dialect.
The borrowing of Old Bulgarian words into the lexical system of standard Russian led to the formation of sets of synonyms of different origin (identical-root variants, e. g. врата – ворота, издать – вызвать, and different-rood doublets, e. g. алкать – голодать, зело – очень). The presence of sets of this type of synonyms of different origin conditioned the establishment of a lexico-semantic redundancy in the lexicon of standard Russian. The elimination of this type of redundancy occurred as a result of the reduction or the termination of use of the Old Bulgarian or the Russian members of the synonymic sets.