This book marked the beginning of theoretically sophisticated science fiction criticism; it changed the whole field, and remains a startling introduction to a discussion that has not ended since its first appearance.
Kim Stanley Robinson
В систематични ред. Книги, статии и рецензии. Около 190 названия.
The system of articles in modern Bulgarian, characterized only by a definite post-positional article, is considerably different from the Rumanian system of articles which possesses, besides the definite article, an indefinite, a proclitic possessive and a proclitic demonstrative article. The definite post-positional article has different uses in the two languages. In some cases there is similarity in the use, as for instance, in possessive constructions with possessive pronouns and with the short forms of the dative case of the personal pronouns. The kinship vocabulary, as a separate lexico-semantic group, exhibits different use with the articles in the two languages. However, in the possessive constructions with kinship vocabulary, the distribution of the articles is the same. A comprehensive study of the two systems is necessary, as well as of all cases of use of the post-positional definite article.
The paper is a brief contrastive study of the characteristics of passive constructions in the Bulgarian literary language and in Polish. The basic reasons which determine the special position of Bulgarian among the other Slavic languages as regards the passive are given, namely the particular development of Bulgarian from a synthetic to an analytic structure which has led to the decomposition of the subject and object infinitives and to the wide spread of the so-called да-sentences in Bulgarian.
tуре of fixed verbal-nominal word-combinations which mark the transition from word-combinations to phraseological units is considered. Their most essential distinctive feature is the common meaning which does not correspond to the sum total of the meanings of the components. In the semantics of the whole unit, the nominal part dominates on the lexical level, and the verb on the grammatical level. An attempt is made to differentiate theoretically the verbal-nominal semi phraseological units from the free word-combinations and phraseological units proper.
The Byelorussian word чырвоны is compared with the Bulgarian word червен and the Polish word czerwony; the analysis shows an old formal and semantic correspondence. The same applies to the Byelorussian word дзяржаўны and the Bulgarian държавен which in the other Slavic languages has been substituted by other words, e. g. Russian государственный. The Byelorussian word сцяг is a complete correspondence of the ancient Bulgarian word ñòýãú which is now considered as an archaism.
The comparison of the Old Bulgarian and the Old Byelorussian declensions is highly indicative of Middle Bulgarian. A lot of phenomena characteristic of Middle Bulgarian in the period 12th–14th c. have their parallels in Old Byelorussian. The similarity between the two languages is manifested not only in the general trends of development but in a number of details as well. The picture is incomplete as a number of characteristics of Old Byelorussian, concerning other cases not treated in Middle Bulgarian, have remained outside the scope of this study. The comparison substantiates the claim that in the development of the Bulgarian declension system until 14th c. new processes of a syntactic direction took place; under certain conditions they might have resulted in a new type of declension as in the other Slavic languages.
The authors outline the theoretical and practical objectives of contrastive linguistics. The theoretical objectives are the construction of formal metalinguages for the contrastive study of natural languages. The practical objectives of applied contrastive linguistics are the improvement of the methods of foreign language teaching, translation and lexicography. The object of study of the present paper is the calculus of the deep semantic cases which may be used for a contrastive study of derivational constraints in syntax. A calculus of the surface level features is suggested for a contrastive study in lexicology.
The aim of the present, paper is to establish the correspondences and differences in the use of един and еin when expressing the idea of indefiniteness in Bulgarian and German. The generalizing and individualizing functions of еin and their expression possibilities in Bulgarian are considered. The theoretical solution of this problem has important practical implications for the further improvement of German language teaching at the Institute of Foreign Students.
The characteristics of the adjective in predicative functions are considered. They form part of the compound predicate and combine with full verbs. The form and structure of these constructions and their use in text is analyzed. In Bulgarian the analytical forms of the compound predicate are preferred; in Polish the simple predicate is preferred. Constructions full verb + adj are typical of Bulgarian, where the class of the so-called adverbial attributes functions. These are often rendered in Polish by adverbs of manner. Adjectives combined with a full verb are treated as special secondary part of the sentence with double dependence. In Polish they are called „adverbial modifier“ or „parallel form of the predicate“. Adjectives in predicative function are rare in Polish; they are expressed by simple predicates or transformed into attributes agreeing with their head words. In subjectless sentences the predicative is expressed in Polish not only by an adjective but by an adverb as well.
Relative adjectives denoting material are derived from nouns with the suffixes -ов / -ев and -ен in Bulgarian and with the suffixes -ов (ав), -ев (-ëв) and -н/-ан; / -jan in Byelorussian. The study of the word-formation and semantic structures of these adjectives is based on lexicographic material from the standard dictionaries of the two languages. In Byelorussian, as compared with Bulgarian, the suffix -ов expressive of material, is predominantly used. The formal and semantic distribution of these suffixes is similar in both languages. The differences are reflected in the existence of an unequal number of word-formative doublets.
Motivated polysemantic words differ from unmotivated ones by the presence of two types of derivational relationships: internal and external. The external relationships are the actual or apparent result of a derivational act and accordingly they can be primary or secondary. The internal derivational relationships of the semantic components of the motivated polysemantic words can be likewise primary and secondary depending on whether they are the result of an actual or an apparent internal (semantic) derivation. The semantic structure of the motivated polysemantic words is the sphere of interaction between word-formation (as a process and a result) and semantic derivation. The study of this interaction and its results is a question of great importance.
The semantic and syntactic contraction of word combinations is a manifestation of the tendency towards linguistic economy,a productive method for the formation of new economical syntactic combinations and of vivid metonymies. Because of the existing differences as to the nature of the semantic and syntactic contraction of word combinations, the author’s position is put forward. The condensed combinations of substantive plus substantive where the modifying word restricts the meaning of the head word are the object of study. Only instances of contrac44 tion by removing the head word are treated here. These condensed phrases have not been the subject of analysis yet. Bulgarian and Russian exhibit a close similarity in the use of these condensed phrases. The search for similarities and differences is of major importance for the methodology of teaching Russian to Bulgarians and for contrastive grammar in general. The semantic and syntactic contraction of word combinations is a manifestation of the tendency towards linguistic economy
A tentative comparison between the non-prefixal verbs in Bulgarian and Byelorussian is made. Itt shows that though closely related, the two languages have their own specific character which is partly common to the respective larger language divisions (South Slavic and East Slavic) and is partly due to the differences which are unique and typical of a given language only.
The data from a free associative experiment with seven Bulgarian words with common semantic components are analysed. The associative fields covered by the words: river, sea, ocean and town, street, house, building are considered. A comparative analysis with data from a free associative experiment with Byelorussian words is made. The conclusion is that words with common semantic components tend to have a double linking. A great similarity between the associative fields of the words considered is found to exist in Bulgarian and Byelorussian. This proves both the linguistic relationship between the two languages and the closeness of the associative thinking of the native speakers of these languages.
The object of study is combinations containing words of the same root in Byelorussian and Bulgarian, known under the name of tautological constructions or etymological figures. A lot of these constructions do not belong to the class of real phraseological units and for that reason they are not included in phraseological dictionaries. A number of these combinations, however, exhibit all the characteristics of phraseological units; for example, some of them contain words which are non-existent outside the framework of the phraseological unit. Part of these combinations are stylistically neutral, others are stylistically marked and often highly expressive. The combinations of words of the same root may either belong exclusively to a dialect or be part of formal style. Interesting and varied comparisons between Byelorussian and Bulgarian are thus obtained.
The numerals два, двама, две and their analogues in Byelorussian are considered. The analysis is based on excerption by continuous selection from Vazov’s classic novel Under the Yoke and its Byelorussian translation. The different uses with and without article are considered, as well as their free use and in combinations with dependent words. The tendency of the numerals to form a concrete grammar pattern is established; their combinatorial properties, semantic and grammatical, are analysed. The hypothesis about the presence of a collective meaning and a certain generalizing meaning in the semantics of these numerals is substantiated by statistical data from Bulgarian only. The main conclusion is that when used with the article the numerals два, двама, две have a collective meaning and a generalizing one.
contrastive study of subjectless sentences in Bulgarian and Polish is made. The term subjectless sentence refers to sentences which do not contain a nominal phrase in concord with a finite verb in their structure. The contrastive study of two languages should be based on two parallel analyses and should lead to conclusions which characterize the function of the forms analysed. The method of analysis is dynamic, based on transformational-generative grammar. The whole set of subjectless sentences may be divided into two groups, the group of kernel sentences (their two-element structure „subject-predicate“ could be interpreted only on the semantic level) and the group of sentences-transforms. The transformations which reduce the agent in both languages, serve as an example of the author’s approach to the contrastive study of subjectless sentences.
Some problems concerning existential sentences in Polish and Bulgarian are discussed. Existential sentences are distinguished from sentences that are generally quantified on a logical basis; thus, the term „existential“, when referring to natural languages, is narrowed. The problem of negation of existential sentences and their temporal independence are also treated. The quantitative parameters of съм and има depend on the semantic structure of the predicates.
Some cases of apposition of substantivized adjectives and nouns of the same root are considered. Apposition concerns concrete lexico-semantic groups in definite syntactic positions: 1.Substantivized adjectives and nouns of the same root with emotional connotation, in the position of appositions referring to the subject or object. 2. Substantivized adjectives for kinship relations and nouns from the kinship vocabulary, in the position of appositions to addresses. Because of the special nature of these appositions serving, above all, as means of expressing the attitude of the speaker or author to a given person, they may be considered as appositions of modal and parenthetical nature. The close interdependence of the semantic, morphologic and syntactic features in appositions is discussed. Some Bulgarian-Polish parallels are given as illustrations.
In view of the fact that foreign language teaching and the teaching of Russian, in particular, have a communicative function, they are considered as a psycholinguistic phenomenon. Scientific terms taken from the multilingual Dictionary of General Technical Terms, M., 1976, are analyzed with a view to the possible positive (transposition) or negative transfer (interference) in the teaching of a closely related language. Particular attention has been paid to interference, both semantic (Russian-Bulgarian homonyms) and lexical, due to differences in the forms of cognate words (gender, number, complete of partial coincidence of valency, stylistic connotations). An attempt is made to describe and classify the general scientific terms and in particular the mechanical engineering terms, taking into account the different aspects of transfer, especially negative transfer, in teaching scientific Russian to Bulgarian students.
Some observations are made on the use of negative constructions in Polish and Bulgarian, based on the common functional characteristics and structure of the syntactic category of „negation“ in the Slavic languages. Though sharing a number of common features, the two languages exhibit several quantitative and qualitative differences, connected with the different nature of the two language structures as a whole, as well as with some modifications of essential features of Slavic sentence structure.
The scientific typology of translation cannot be based on a single principle but on an integrated set of principles which reflect the main determining qualitative characteristics of the different types of translation. In this connection, the following problems are treated: the necessity of solving the problem of typologization in translation; its varieties as the object of study within the framework of the general and specialized theories of translation; the basic principles of a scientific work differ not only in their form, but in their content as well; this accounts for the genetic, the structural and content principle, the psychological, the linguistic principles, etc. Translation as a specific social, cultural and creative activity, its comprehensive system and typologization necessitate the elucidation of a number of key problems of translatology, such as the creative aspect of translation. In the author’s view, „the creative aspect of translation“ should be understood as: 1) creative activity on the level of language (referring to all genres), and 2) creative activity related to artistic and imaginative thinking and recreation. A work of art and a scientific work differ not only in their form, but in their content as well; this accounts for the various ways of their creation and rendition.
A contextual morphemic analysis is made on the basis of equal excerpts of texts translated into both languages with a view to defining the significant structural parameters and furthering Rumanian-Bulgarian typological studies. The synthetic and inflexional indices, as well as several other additional indices have been calculated by using some older and well-known formulas, such as those of E. Sapir, G. Greenberg and S. Marcus, and other more recent formulas. The results of these calculations illustrate quantitatively a number of structural elements and some differences that should be taken into account in future studies of both languages.
The minimal structural scheme of complex sentences with subordinate adverbial clauses of condition is studied, as well as its incomplete realizations in the two languages. Special attention is paid to the problem of the relative position of the parts of a complex sentence with a subordinate adverbial clause of condition with respect to its functioning as a means of functional sentence perspective. The cases when it is relevant/irrelevant to the communicative structure of the whole sentence are specially emphasized.
The chronological priority of Рибен буквар by Peter Beron and of Беларуски лемэнтар by Karus Kaganec as the first works devoted to language in Bulgarian and Byelorussian Renaissance literature is proved. The author considers the kindred qualities of the two works (democratism, the use of progressive methods, rationalism and their educative and patriotic character), as well as the differences between them, determined by the different periods they were created in and the conditions existing in the respective countries at the time. Рибен буквар is developed on two planes; it is also addressed to teachers giving instructions about the teaching method. It offers a practical model of the grammar system. Its chrestomathy is of encyclopaedic character. Беларуски лемэнтар contains high ideological principles in spite of its marked ap71 plied character (it is a teach-yourself book); the texts include folklore and ethnographic material.
The differences in agreement in number in constructions with cardinal numerals in Bulgarian and Polish are treated. On a syntagmatic plane the differences between the two languages are actually connected with the existence of a numerical plural form in Bulgarian and its absence in Polish. In both languages numerals greater than one always combine with a noun in the plural (sometimes with the numerical plural form in Bulgarian). On the syntactic level the difference is considerable and may be explained in terms of the semantic agreement in Bulgarian (the predicate is in the plural when the numeral is greater than one), whereas in Polish the agreement is grammatical (dwaj chlopcy spiewaja, but pieciu chlopcow spiewa).
The varying semantic and syntactic characteristics of the Bulgarian imperfect in various predicative units have been used to distinguish two basic types: the modal and temporal variants
The intensive study of the dialect vocabulary of Byelorussian and Bulgarian is connected with the problem of the lexical relations between the two languages. Linguogeography is of primary importance in establishing the lexical parallels between the two languages; it offers accurate ant possible ways of reconstructing hypothetical past relations. In the course of time these relations have been obscured by numerous language phenomena during the historical development of the two languages in conformity with their specific linguistic, cultural, historical and geographical context. A number of lexemes (most of which definitely belong to a given dialect) exhibit a complete structural and semantic similarity.
Bulgarian constructions of the нов-новеничък type, meaning an absolute superlative, and their Rumanian parallels are considered. The constructions are analysed from a semantic and structural point of view. The examples excerpted from fiction illustrate the colloquial character of the construction, as well as its positive and emotive meanings. Some suggestions about the archaic nature of the constructions in both languages are made, too.
Culinary terminology, with its clear structure and relatively archaic terms is the object of study of the present paper. The presence of a number of lexico-semantic parallels between the verbs designating culinary processes has been shown. The detailed comparative semantic analysis of the verbs belonging to the subgroup, most typical of the process
This is an attempt at investigating some phenomena connected with the semantic structure of the verb on a synchronic plane. The analysis is based on the principle of the sign character of language and the ideas of Bierwisch and of some other linguists on componential analysis. The four basic syntactic patterns of the verb look and the respective Bulgarian verb, and the five basic syntactic patterns of the verb turn and its Bulgarian equivalents are analyzed. Thus, the close connection and interdependence of the semantic component and the syntactic structure are revealed. The syntactic patterns are regarded as a specific micro-structure. This makes it possible to get a deeper insight into the nature of the semantic component. As a result the following important conclusions are made: the semantic elements are in hierarchic relations; they vary in the degree of activity depending on the different syntactic patterns. The analysis as a whole throws light on some specific features of the semantic component of the verbs in English and in Bulgarian: in both languages the semantic component is almost the same; in English its elements are flexible and change their configuration easily; in Bulgarian they are stable due to the morphological structure of the Bulgarian verb; each semantic element in the Bulgarian verb has its explicit exponent in the syntactic structure (on the surface) while in English the syntactic structure very often implies some semantic elements.
The special uses of nouns denoting persons in the function of object in verbal combinations and excerpted from written records of Old Bulgarian and Old Byelorussian literature are considered. The comparison of the written records of the two languages shows that the nouns denoting persons in the function of objects exhibit not only common meanings and structural characteristics but considerable differences as well. In general the differences do not refer to the universal model of v + n in the accusative and dative cases. That type of construction is common to both Old Bulgarian and Old Byelorussian written records. The incorporation of new elements in the word combinations results in both structural and semantic changes. Besides the construction with transitive verbs and nouns in the accusative, the author also considers the so-called double accusative and dative; these double cases in the Old Byelorussian records have been ousted by other syntactic structures: the predicative instrumental and subordinate attributive clauses.
The semantics of Bulgarian possessive pronouns and the different kinds of relationships between the possessor and the object in possession are considered. Two types of possession are distinguished: passive, which is not connected with any action concerning the possessor and the object in possession; active, where the possessor and the object in possession are connected by means of a „hidden“ predicate or a predicate included in the semantic structure of the possessive construction. Some aspects of the distribution of Bulgarian and Polish possessive pronouns are also described.
The paper is devoted to one of the varieties of syntactic derivation in the dynamic syntax of the Slavic languages; causative relations connecting sentences of the type of: The train stopped – The engine/driver stopped the train, illustrated with examples in Bulgarian, Russian and Byelorussian. Four basic ways of expressing causative relations are considered: analytic, lexical, morphological and syntactic. Special attention is paid to the last of the above mentioned ways: the expression of causative derivation by means of the presence/ absence of a direct object. Colloquial speech is a specific area where the syntactic causative is used. The widely predominant phenomena of occasional dereflexivization and occasional transitivation testify to the productivity of this method of expressing causative relations as well as to the regularity of these relations in the consciousness of the Slav native speakers.
The comparison of international substantives ending in -ция in Bulgarian and their equivalents in German reveals a certain variety in the suffixation of the latter: -a(t)ion, -(t)ie, -enz, -anz, deriving from the Latin -(t)io, -(t)ia, -entia, -antia. In order to prevent inaccuracies in the reproduction of the German equivalents by Bulgarians, an additional segmentation that takes into account the component -V(C)-, i. e. vowel (+ consonant) before the syncretic suffix -ция is proposed in the article. On the basis of the transposition models thus established, some rare word-formation aberrations appear. Furthermore, possible stylistic and semantic divergences of structurally identical lexemes in both languages are pointed out. For the purposes of effective communication it is also important that the competition of international and domestic suffixes, as well as the synonymy of international and domestic lexemes should be observed.
The common and different uses of the imperfect tense in Bulgarian and French are analysed on the morpho-syntactic level: concrete, generalized, habitual, iterative and qualificative. The modal uses of the imperfect are also discussed: optative, the imperfect instead of the futur, the imperfect instead of the présent, the imparfait instead of the futur imparfait instead of futur hypothétique simple, and imparfait hypocoristique which has no formal equivalent in Bulgarian.
A classification of the possible types of relations between words of common Slavic origin is given. The relations vary from complete semantic identity to antonymy.
Some observations on the valency of verbs with the meaning of „get information, inquire about something“ (the reception and acquisition of information) in Bulgarian and Polish are made with the purpose of establishing the relationship between the similarity and difference in their valency models on syntactic, lexico-morphological and semantic levels. The concept of semantic, lexical, lexico-morphologic and syntactic valencies is clarified. Inferences about the congruence or lack of it regarding syntactic valency of semantically equivalent Bulgarian and Polish verbs are also made.
The author studies the communicational aspect of scientific texts and posits the methodological presuppositions for their translation. Analysing the system of qualificators of scientific style, created by I. Mistrik and F. Miko, the author formulates his own conception according to which a scientific text is the point of intersection of most various oppositions as e. g. reality ↔ reflection, content ↔ form, signifié ↔ signifiant, explicitness ↔ implicitness. Showing the realisation of the complex opposition tension ↔ detention, the author of the study points at the existence of the semiotization of reality. As an illustration, a scheme of intertextual relations, existing in Lenin’s works, is proposed by the author. The specific mechanism of receding in the process of translating scientific texts is analysed. Through the metacommunicative operations present in that process, the translator creates a text about a text. The author uses the notion of expressive shift which is regarded not only as a system notion but also as an axiological and test-forming criterion for the changes that are functionally justified in translation. A table is given where the author tries to distinguish the separate translation operations on the basis of their structural localization.
The following differences have been found: the primary suffix -ив is more productive in Bulgarian than in Byelorussian; in both languages it is mote productive in a deverbative function than in a denominative function. The secondary suffix -лив is more productive in Byelorussian than in Bulgarian. In Byelorussian this suffix has a more marked deverbative function. In Bulgarian, although -лив is less productive, it is better represented in its denominative function than in Byelorussian. The less common deverbative function of -лив in Bulgarian is explained in terms of its interaction with the suffixes -тел(e)н and -чив which are not characteristic of Byelorussian. The most recent suffix -чив, les common in both languages, is four to fivefold more productive in Bulgarian. The differences in Bulgarian and Byelorussian correspond to the similarities between Bulgarian and Russian on the one hand, and to those between Byelorussian and Polish on the other hand.
The paper is an attempt to look into the content of the notion „articulatory basis“ as defined until now. The aim is to expand and elaborate the notion still further so that it can accommodate the basic components naturally involved in it. At the same time, a new formulation is put forward corresponding to the content of the term.
The problem of contrastive phonological analysis on the level of speech perception is discussed. Perception of foreign language sounds is studied by the methods of multidimensional psychological scaling of their acoustic similarity or by Osgood’s semantic differential technique. It is possible to make correspondences between foreign language sound and native language sound patterns by the phoneme analyses of the words given as associates to a spoken foreign language word. In this study 236 spoken English words were presented to 110 Bulgarian native language subjects with the request that within a five second response interval they indicate for each word whether or not it suggested a Bulgarian word-association to them. As our Bulgarian subjects have never studied English, the English words were nonsense syllables to them. Association value (meaningfulness) of these „nonsense syllables“ was measured by Glaze’s procedure. Bulgarian word-association vocabulary of the English words-stimuli is given at the end of the article. The vocabulary is a source for contrastive phonological studies of the Bulgarian and English languages, as well as for experimental studies of natural language mediators in second language learning.
The article is a first attempt at a contrastive study of the verbs of motion in Bulgarian and Vietnamese. The author does not set himself the task of defining the notion of „verbs of motion“; however, he considers it necessary to distinguish, by means of a semantic marker, the „ verbs of motion“ from the verbs of the other semantic groups on the same level. The common semantic component in the verbs of motion is the notion of motion which is to be understood as „spatial displacement“. The presence of this and other similar semantic components in the basic meaning of the verbs of motion accounts for their being further differentiated into separate sub-systems or sub-groups. This provides the basis for the contrastive analysis of the verbs of motion in the two languages.
The paper is an attempt at a contrastive semantic analysis of the polysemantic kinship terms in two languages belonging to different linguistic families, Bulgarian and Vietnamese. A definite quantity of terms has been analysed and the componential method used in the analysis has the advantage of displaying the semantic characteristics of the whole lexico-semantic group. The results of the analysis have widened the range of the semantic features and have limited the range of the anthropological features. The results can be used in contrastive and typological studies of kinship terms in different languages.
The choice of auxiliary verbs in a given language is not arbitrary. In their formation the composite verbal forms are based on the essential semantic categories of existence, attributiveness, possession, motion and action. According to other specific characteristics of languages (the nature of the participle, the development of the infinitive, etc.) these categories have been realized in different ways. Sometimes, one and the same idea is treated from different angles. Thus, for example, the idea of movement is the basis of the temporal relations. The movement from the past to the present and from the present to the future is expressed in French by the verbs of movement in space, whereas in Bulgarian, the movement from the present to the future is expressed by a modal verb. By inference, the following conclusion has been reached: from a semantic point of view the auxiliary verbs constitute a system based on the verb notions: be, have and do.
Two types of language transformations are observed in translating Bulgarian adverbs of manner into French. The first type are transformations which do not change the subject-predicate group: when the two languages differ, the Bulgarian adverb can be rendered into French by an adverbial phrase, by a cognate adverbial complement, accompanied by an adjective, corresponding to the Bulgarian adverb, or by an adjective which is syntactically related to the subject of the sentence or to a secondary part of the sentence. The second type is transformations in which the structure of the whole is changed, the sentence centre usually being a modal or an auxiliary verb. Thus, the Bulgarian adverbs of manner exhibit a tendency towards nominalization of the verb group when they are translated into French.
The author considers the conditions under which the Bulgarian verb имам ‘have’ may substitute the verb съм ‘be’ in the function of a copula. A contrastive analysis is made with Czech, where the Czech verb mít ‘have’, preserving its „semantic modification“, i. e. a definite degree of possession, exists as a variant of the verb byt in the function of a copula. The limited use of the copulative имам in Bulgarian is emphasized and the verb is treated in terms of a copula when it’s natural or given possessive relation to the subject results directly from the referent itself.