В статията е поставен въпросът за пространствените и генетични отношения между палеобалканските езици, които представляват един от сложните проблеми на съвременното индоевропейско езикознание. Мненията на учените за съществуването или не на родство помежду им не е единно. Изследвани са две групи съответствия - фонетични (застъпването на палаталите със спиранти, делабиализацията на лабиовеларите, третирането на експлозивните съгласни) и топонимични (наблюдения върху две групи от топоними, в първата от които имена от една и съща основа се срещат в три или повече езикови области, а във втората - в две езикови области). Аргументирана е хипотезата, че съвпадението между областите на фонетични и на топонимични съответствия е белег не само за географска близост, но и за генетично родство между тези езици.
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roceeding from the view that approximates are words or forms belonging to two different languages, formally similar or identical but having different or even contrary meanings, the article discusses Bulgarian
This article attempts to systematize the most common errors in the use of adverbial participle constructions in Bulgarian as compared to Polish. It establishes the conditions in which the principles of identity of subjects or concurrence of the action expressed by the adverbial participle and the verb in the sentence are violated. It is claimed that the reasons for violating these principles are similar in both languages although there are some differences. The norms of the Polish language allow the use of adverbial participle constructions also in some types of impersonal sentences. In Bulgarian, the adverbial participle can sometimes express a transitive action while in Polish such use is impossible and is a violation of the morphological system.
wo auditory tests were carried out with different tasks being set to the listeners. The results from both tests proved to be almost the same. German and Bulgarian listeners gave very similar answers regarding the boundary „diphthong-monophthong“ and the correlation coefficients between the listeners’ answers and the physical parameters of the test stimuli were also of the same order in both cases. The answers of the Bulgarian listeners as regards the phonetic quality of the first components of the diphthongs varied in a higher degree as compared with the answers of the German listeners who identified them more „correctly“. This fact may be explained by the different phonological status of the two kinds of units.
The article attempts to provide a more comprehensive analysis of the category of equality in English and Bulgarian. It discusses the conditions of expressing equality within the broader category of comparison of respective entities and the presence of a quality marked as [+scale]. The analysis of the exponents in the two languages independently points to intralingual dependence between the exponents of equality, similarity and identity. The contrastive analysis shows their interrelationships and indicates the areas where native or foreign language interference might occur.
The article attempts to prove that the choice of aspectual and temporal forms of the verbs in a Bulgarian text describing events depends not only on the grammatical principles of verb co-ordination but on the adverbial modifiers surrounding the actants as well as on the semantics of the latter. A rich system of tenses, aspects, witness and non-witness registers facilitates the authorization of the narrative as well as the concrete appreciation of simple facts and actions which in other languages are presented in a non-event informatively neutral variant. The analysis shows that eventfulness which is a totally universal text category is expressed in specific ways in different languages depending on the linguistic possibilities for describing extralinguistic situations.
The Bulgarian word един ‘one’ and its Russian and Byelorussian equivalents один and адзін, have almost the same set of meanings although they are used differently in these related languages. This is confirmed by some statistic data. The word един is used almost twice as often because of its having acquired the function of an indefinite article. In Modern Bulgarian the category of indefiniteness is expressed not only by the zero article but also by the indefinite article един, една, едно. This, however, is not fully developed, as it does not cover all abstract nouns in Bulgarian. In some cases the use of един is optional.
The article discusses the interlingual relationships between the prepositions of horizontal orientation in Russian and Bulgarian. Special emphasis is put on the specific use of the prepositions перед, пред and за, зад which are characterized by semantic proximity in the two languages.
An attempt is made to establish the systemic significance of the isomorphism between impersonal and modal constructions. While it is natural to express the clear cases of epistemic modality impersonally, there is a choice between personal and impersonal expression when different degrees of „objectified“ (within the proposition) or root modality are meant. Unlike English, Bulgarian sometimes shows an overt lack of subject-predicate agreement, i. e. the modal verb is impersonal. The analysis of personal constructions denoting epistemic modality shows that the presence or absence of co-reference of the modal and the notional verb to the same subject is a universal means of describing the cline of modal meanings.
The functional semantic fields of conclusive modality in Bulgarian and Ukrainian are compared. Using excerpts from fiction translations, the author attempts to establish the Ukrainian functional equivalents of the Bulgarian conclusive forms or combinations of a modifier and a conclusive form. Although the study is confined to what is sometimes referred to as introductory words
The article discusses the morphological, semantic and functional similarities and differences between the possessive pronouns in Spanish and Bulgarian. The starting point of the contrastive study is the popular concept of possession as a universal category correlated with person
This paper discusses some typologically relevant features of the structure of the Bulgarian standard language in terms of their systemic relationships and functional interdependence, as compared to other Slavic languages. Two basic types of phenomena are analysed: categorial innovations and their incorporation in the system taken as an abstract entity of categorial inventory common to all Slavic languages; re-organization of Slavic grammatical means connected with the work of a definite typological mechanism. In this connection several types of reorganizational processes and tendencies are discussed (dichotomy, unification, grammaticalization, secondary paradigmatization, analyticity, redundancy, etc.).
In a bilingual environment, appropriate intonation is of considerable importance in relation to style and usage. The paper discusses the frequency of occurrence of some neutral and modal intonation patterns in Bulgarian and Russian which impede adequate comprehension by bilinguals.
The article presents a contrastive analysis of complex sentences with subordinate clauses of effect of inference in German and Bulgarian. The analysis is carried out on the semantic, lexicosyntactic and structural-syntactic levels. As an objectively existing cause-effect relation can be linguistically expressed in terms of both the cause and effect, in many cases the types of sentences under discussion can be transformed into complex sentences with a subordinate clause of cause. The conditions under which such a transformation would be possible are given in the article.
This article presents a pioneer study of some elements of Slovak and Bulgarian belonging to various levels in the linguistic structure. Although these are similar in form and meaning in both languages, they differ substantially from the corresponding elements in Czech. The paper claims that some word-formative and lexical elements merit special attention since they show the similarities between Slovak and some Bulgarian dialects, i. e. West Bulgarian and Rupian dialects as the initial study indicates. The paper points to the possibilities for new findings and provides some considerations on the problem of South Slavic elements in the Slovak language as well as the relationships between the Slavic languages in general.
The paper reports the results of a contrastive analysis of the semantic and morphological features of the indefinite pronouns in modern Bulgarian and modern Polish. Some statistical data are given about the use frequency of different groups of indefinite pronouns. Using statistical analysis, the study attempts to define some typical as well as some specific tendencies in translating indefinite pronouns from Polish into Bulgarian and vice versa.
This article analyses the wide range of meanings of the verb имам (resp. mít) in Bulgarian and Czech. The study is based on the polyfunctional character of this verb and offers an attempt at constructing a complex model of its complicated semantic functional structure. The basic pos80 sessive and existential types of meanings, the potentialities of desemantization of the grammatical meanings, the function of the verb substitute as well as its role in the phraseological system of the language are discussed. The contrastive analysis shows the existence of an original hierarchy in the predominant part of the various meanings in which qualifying is in the role of semantic-logical supercategory.
The article presents a contrastive study of some French and Bulgarian astronautic terms formed on the basis of typically Russian models. Simple two-component terms taken from dictionaries, which are highly productive and widely used, are discussed. Some similarities and differences in the use of such terms in Russian, French and Bulgarian are shown.
The paper presents an analysis of the morphological behaviour of the Bulgarian verb in relation to the cause/process opposition. Its specific features in comparison with the synthetic Slavic languages as well as similarities with the Greek verb are discussed. The analytical features in the morphology of the Bulgarian verb are emphasized.
The article considers the semantic and syntactic similarities and differences between the most frequently used interrogative particles in Serbo-Croatian and Bulgarian. The conclusion is drawn that the particle ли is more grammaticalized and more frequently used in Bulgarian than in Serbo-Croatian. The author suggests that the form of the predicate (positive or negative) in98 fluences the meaning of sentences with an interrogative particle in Serbo-Croatian.
In the article, the principles of chronology and dynamism are applied to verb tenses in French and Bulgarian. It is established that the two languages show great similarities in terms of the use of verb tenses in parataxis. However, there exist essential differences between French and Bulgarian as far as the use of verb tenses in hypotaxis is concerned.
The article attempts to establish the semantic features of the verbs to be and съм, connected with monocentric predication, as well as of the bicentric verbs to have and имам. Some conditions are pointed out in which parallelism between these two types of verbs is possible. Two basic types of interlingual transformations are discussed: (1) to have → съм and to be → имам, accompanied by structural asymmetry of the predicative phrase, and (2) to have → съм and to be → имам, accompanied by asymmetry in the prepositional phrase. Some typical differences in the themo-rhematic organization of the analysed English and Bulgarian sentences are also pointed out.
The close cultural interaction between Czech and Bulgarian musicians shortly after the National Liberation (1878) are reflected in the sphere of language, too. The study of the vocabulary of some of the first Bulgarian musical publications confirms the assumption of Czech influence on the formation of Bulgarian musical terminology, traceable in loan words, direct borrowings, the names of Czech folk dances, etc. The nature of Czech linguistic influence is quite indicative of the activities of Czech musicians in Bulgaria.
This paper examines the morphosyntactic phenomenon of tense neutralization in English, Bulgarian and Russian subordinate clauses of time as a typological universal. The underlying premise is that grammatical categories and rules may со-vary with functional domains (e. g
The article presents some theoretical and methodological principles, which can be applied in the contrastive analysis of the category of person. The attempt at defining the semantic category of person shows that its description should be based on an explicit discrimination between the pragmatic and the semantic level. Besides, if a complete list of the formal means of expressing semantic communicative roles is to be compiled, that is only possible within the framework of a description on the semantic level. The second part of the article shows a possible approach to the contrastive analysis of linguistic material from different languages (Bulgarian, Serbo-Croatian and Polish) in terms of the category of person.
The article is an etymological study of the vocabulary of a secret language used by beggars in the village of Dobărsko, Razlog district. The author is the first scholar to have recorded this jargon, its specific functional transformation into a jargon of the male population having prevented its study hitherto. The etymological analysis reveals interaction between neighbouring Balkan languages mainly. Most of the loan-words have changed in accordance with the phonetic and word-formational rules of the locally spoken dialect. Some of them have undergone semantic modifications, too.