Cinema 2: The Time-Image brings to completion Gilles Deleuze's work on the theoretical implications of the cinematographic image. In Cinema 1: The Movement-Image, Deleuze proposed a new way to understand narrative cinema, based on Henri Bergson's notion of the movement-image and C.S. Pierce's classification of images and signs. In Cinema 2, he explains why, since World War II, time has come to dominate film: the fragment or solitary image, in supplanting narrative cinema's rational development of events, illustrates this new significance of time.
The article presents some of the most important tendencies in the formation of nouns denoting persons in Bulgarian and in Czech from the end of the 1970s until nоw, especially in connection with the democratic changes in 1989. It is pointed out that as a result of democratization and internationalization of the lexical systems some word-formation processes were activated during the period: coining of so called abbreviated compound nouns beginning with агро-, евро-, еко-, енерго-, нарко-, юго- (in Bulgarian); coining of nouns with foreign prefixes; formation of nouns for female persons derived from nouns for male persons (in Bulgarian); creating of nouns by means of univerbization, abbreviation etc. The new tendency for personal nouns with топ- as their first component to be formed in Bulgarian is to be explained with the influence of the English language.
In the paper the rules of gender assignment in Bulgarian and Czech are compared. English inanimate loanwords provide a great deal of confirming evidence for predominantly formal models of gender assignment in both Slavic languages. The paper reveals important differences between them however: Bulgarian employs relatively straightforward phonological rules based on the sound quality of the ending of the basic word form, whereas Czech uses more complex morphological rules dependant on declension types. As a result, gender assignment in Bulgarian follows a pattern with fewer irregularities than in Czech.
The lexemes man and people and their most frequent synonyms in Portuguese and in Bulgarian are analysed contrastively in this paper. It is obvious from the analysis that the treated lexical units have quite clear content only at first glance. In fact it is because of their small number of semantic features that they enter into complex interrelations and they often function as pronouns showing considerable differences in the two contrasted languages.
The article discusses the semantics of Russian and Bulgarian verbs which signify division into parts; this is described in the spirit of the semantic theory of the Russian linguistic school in the last two decades.
The paper is a detailed contrastive study of the dictionary definitions of the items one and един and their functions in original texts and their translations. On the basis of this analysis the author concludes that all the various functions of one, because of which it is often defined as belonging to various classes of words (or parts of speech), can by systematized and presented as a cline, starting with its basic numerical use to denote the singleness of an object of speech, or a certain quality of this object. Then come its more or less purely structural functions as a substitute for the name of such an object or quality, already mentioned in the text or existing in the common index-field of the participants in a speech act, or as a prop-word. Following along this cline is the use of one as a noun, i. e. with denoting functions, and finally as a morpheme with an active word-formative pattern, the elements of which are used with a variety of pragmatic nuances of the invariant meaning of singularity.
The article traces the morphological adaptation of anglicism in two distantly related languages – Bulgarian and Rumanian, according to the various parts of speech. Nouns, which are most prominent among loanwords, are given greater attention. Special attention is given to the specific features and the common tendencies in the two languages with respect to gender assignment and the formation of plurals. The specific processes of borrowing English verbs and adjectives are also touched upon. The interdependence between morphological adaptation, on the one hand, and phonetic and orthographic adaptation, on the other, are also discussed.
The article deals with various aspects of mother language attrition, code-switching, bilingualism and trilingualism in the speech of Bulgarian Jews in Israel.
Es werden hier slawische Wortschatzeinflüsse auf die deutsche Hoch- und Umgangssprache sowie auf deutsche Mundarten besprochen. Dabei wird auf die Notwendigkeit einer weiteren systematischen Erforschung der mundartlichen Einflüsse mit genauen Angaben über deren Ortsbestimmung hingewiesen. Die Arbeit konzentriert sich auf die Übernahme slawischer Wortbildungselemente ins Deutsche und unterscheidet Wortschatzentlehnungen mit slawischen Wortbildungselementen, Rückentlehnungen sowie Analogiebildungen mit slawischen Suffixen, die auf deutschem Sprachboden, vor allem in den ehemaligen Grenzgebieten und zweisprachigen Mundarträumen, entstanden sind. Es werden Bildungen mit den Suffixen -ski, -ak, -ik, -nik, -(l)ik, -uśk(i), -učk(i), -ičk(i), -us, -uś -ač/-ac, -ar behandelt mit dem Hinweis auf die Notwendigkeit einer systematischen Untersuchung weiterer Suffixe. Die hier besprochene morphologische Anpassung der slawischen Entlehnungen auf deutschem Sprachboden erfolgte durch Suffigierung (bei Adjektiven mit -ig, -lich, -(i)sch, bei Verben mit -en, -eien, bei Substantiven – nur beispielsweise – mit -er, -nik) sowie durch Bildung von Hybridkomposita. Erwähnt wird auch die Verwendung slawischen Wortguts durch deutsche Schriftsteller als Stilmittel zur Wiedergabe des lokalen Kolorits der ehemaligen zweisprachigen Gebiete.