В систематичен ред. Книги, статии и рецензии 375 названия. Съдържа и списък на прегледаните източници.
Some basic points arising in the contrastive study of analyticity in English and Bulgarian are considered. It is pointed out that the motivation for bilateral diachronic contrastive studies is usually weaker than for the respective synchronic studies. More productive in a number of cases are multilateral studies which ensure a higher degree of certainty in establishing constant correlations between the emergence of analyticity and language contacts. The preference for 124 simplified analytical structure is the manifestation of a universal communicative strategy in conditions of language contact.
The article analyses the specific semantic conditions in which the individualizing force of the Slavic word ‘one’ in the position of a determiner of the predicative noun is realized. Its use in sentences containing a modifier само ‘only’ for the elimination of ambiguity in meaning is investigated, as well as its expressive function in defining the personal and professional qualities of an individual.
This article attempts to delimitate „instrumental meaning“ as a semantic category from „object meaning“ on the one hand and „modal meaning“ on the other. Within the class of noun phrases designating instrumental meaning in both languages the group of noun phrases designating instrumental meaning (cut with a knife) is distinguished from noun phrases designating for instance means of transportation (go by train) or so-called auxiliary instruments (walk on stilts). The author discusses some specific difficulties as to the translation of instrumental noun phrases from German into Russian.
This paper aims at showing the specific features of English and Bulgarian in view of the fact that they are both considered to be analytical languages. The basic idea is that the degree of analyticity or syntheticity can be measured by analysing their exponents on all language levels
A generalized contrastive analysis of the French and the Bulgarian phonetic systems is made, with a focus on vowels. Some basic articulatory and structural differences are established. While contemporary French features a comparatively tense, primarily front and markedly labial way of articulation of vowels, Bulgarian features a comparatively loose, primarily back and non-labial way of articulation. In contrast to French, where nasal vowels function as separate phonemes, the nasalized vowels in Bulgarian are to be viewed as positional variants of the corresponding oral vowels. Along with these peculiarities, the difference between the accent patterns of the two languages is pointed out.
The paper presents the results of a contrastive experimental phonetic study of assimilation phenomena appearing at the so-called outer-sandhi. The similarities and differences between German and Bulgarian in this process, which is physiologically conditioned, but specifically differentiated for the respective language systems, are investigated. Their close dependence upon a number of factors is taken into consideration. The results of the study can be used as the basis for the correction of some orthoepic rules in the field of „interword“ phonetics and in speech synthesis. The results may also be directly used in the teaching of phonetics to Bulgarian learners of German and vice versa.
The article makes an attempt at explaining the substantial differences between Russian and Czech in the ways of expressing the subject in sentences with modal verbs and predicative words. These sentences are classified according to whether their subject is expressed by a separate word, whether it has nominative or other form, and whether it has definite or indefinite reference. The conclusion is made that in Russian there is a much higher percentage of sentences with a non-expressed non-nominative subject which are also used in such communicative situations where Czech uses constructions with a pronominal or a verbally non-expressed subject.
The relationship between existential and perceptual sentences is studied on the basis of a threetier system of semantic analysis, establishing the presence of common predications in their deepest semantic structures. Conclusions are also drawn about the factors determining the choice, for explicit rendering, of the existential or perceptual predication in English and Bulgarian, the most important amongst them being: the nature of space; the degree of privacy of the perception; the volume and specificity of the information received via the various channels of perception, and the quantity and character of the additional information (modal, aspectual, etc.) subsumed under the perceptual predicate.
The article investigates four types of constructions containing a double object in Bulgarian colloquial speech, alongside some formal-syntactic correspondences in the colloquial speech of some other Slavonic languages. A conclusion is made about the presence of a syntactic construction in Bulgarian colloquial speech, partly observed also in the standard language, in contrast to the correspondences in the Slavonic languages which are a special result of the action of a universal colloquial mechanism.
The article discusses conversion by duplication in Balkan languages: formation of a superlative degree, formation of adverbs of other types of words (repetition of pronouns, numerals, nouns) some of which feature a high degree of idiomatization. The obsolescence of the phenomenon is considered as well as possible foreign influence on it. Its similarities and differences in particular Balkan languages are pointed out. A conclusion is made that the phenomenon discussed has different frequency in the different Balkan languages (higher in Albanian and Modern Greek in comparison with Bulgarian and Romanian) which is indicative of its polygenesis.
The article analyzes verbal denominal predicates whose basis is oriented towards multitudes with behaviour, activity etc. characteristic of its elements. The activity/behaviour of the subject corresponds to these characteristics. Slavonic languages differ according to the productivity of the particular varieties of denominal predicates. The author distinguishes six groups of predicates with a basis showing a behaviour which is characteristic of one or another multitude of persons, e. g. predicates showing profession, social position, behaviour, etc.
The article follows the evolution of the private lexico-semantic system chváliť
The tendency towards terminologization and internationalization of lexis in modern standard Slavic languages gives rise to various innovations, neologisms and occasionalisms. The paper studies some of the most characteristic manifestations of linguistic dynamics in standard Bulgarian and standard Czech. The analysis shows the similarities and differences between the two languages and the reasons for these phenomena
The article outlines the theoretical and methodological basis of the contrastive description of predicators in Polish and Bulgarian. Special attention is paid to the class of predicates referring to perceptions and emotions which make room for an argument labelled Experiencer. Problems connected with the exhaustive description of this class are touched upon. The aim of the detailed description (which will take place during the next stage of the project) is to make an analysis on the semantic and syntactic level in the two languages and especially to describe the distribution in the syntactic structure of Bulgarian and Polish and the value of the argument
The article gives а short presentation of the Bulgarian да-construction in the context of its functional equivalents in the Slavic languages. The comparison shows the presence of essential typological parallelisms in the formal, distributive, functional and semantic characteristics of the investigated equivalents. Their common features suggest that there are good grounds for them (as well as for the Bulgarian да-constniction) to be interpreted as analytic forms of a mood, identical in its distribution and functions to the conjunctive in classical languages.
The paper discusses two German constructions with regard to the voice they belong to and all the additional meanings they bear. The diathesis model has been used as a theoretical background. Bulgarian patterns analogous to the German constructions have been shown and examined. Correlations between the two constructions have been pointed out.
The article discusses compound sentences with a subordinate clause of realized condition whereby realized condition is understood also as a condition the future realization of which is certain according to the speaker. The aim is to establish the moods used in these compound sentences and especially the combinations of tense forms in the Bulgarian conditional and main clause, as well as their equivalents in German.
The wide variety of French translation correspondences of the Bulgarian present tense includes not only the basic indicative tenses but other moods too
The author points out the presence of a particular parallelism in the use of the terms slavenosrpski (Slavo-Serbian) and slavenobolgarski (Slavo-Bulgarian) by Serbians and Bulgarians in the 18 th and in the first half of the 19th c. In both cases these names mean an affiliation to Serbians, respectively to Bulgarians, to the Serbian and respectively to the Bulgarian nation, whereby their Slavonic origin is specifically emphasized.
The paper deals with Polish equivalents of един in non-quantitative function. Results are given of an analysis made on fiction works of Bulgarian authors with a corresponding translation
The article discusses some peculiarities of the verbal and the nominal component in existential sentences with съм and има in Bulgarian with the rest of the Slavic languages in the background. In Bulgarian there is a formal contrast between sentences of common and concrete existence. The peculiarities of the investigated existential sentences are influenced by nominal analytism, the outward expression of definiteness/indefiniteness in nouns, in doubling of the object, as well as the widest among the Slavic languages sphere of use of има as a verb of existence.
The onomastic system can be regarded as a pyramid consisting of a great number of layers with various degrees of onomasticity. The system of articles is also a multilayered hierarchy and embraces different functional varieties of appellative and onomastic articles. The interaction of the onomastic and article systems is not the same in different languages which is the main reason for the diversity of the article usage with proper names. Microonyms, which form the foundation of the onomastic pyramid are often supplied with articles in different languages and this indicates the existence of typological isomorphism.
n the article similarities and differences have been established between Objektsprädikativ in German and the corresponding Object Predicative in Bulgarian. The method of double comparison has been used. The following model of levels turns out to be especially suitable for confrontative purposes: communicative-pragmatic, syntactical, morphological. The observations are carried out mainly on the syntactic level. The semantics of OP, its distribution and the semantics of the verbs with which it correlates are discussed.
The aim of the article is to establish the full translation paradigm of πον in Bulgarian through its analysis and the observation of its Bulgarian equivalents on a systematic and a discourse level. New information is given on the functional equivalents of πον in Bulgarian which expand its popular dictionary equivalents known so far. The equivalents follow a certain hierarchy in their arrangement, the basic feature of which is their frequency of use. A conclusion is made that πον is a polyfunctional category which varies semantically depending on context.
Attention is paid to one of the most difficult grammatical categories of the verb for learners of English, the present perfect tense. On the basis of a translation corpus of 1000 pages, functional equivalents of the English present perfect in Bulgarian are established and a preliminary analysis is made of one of them, the past indefinite tense, also called present perfect. The present perfect is strongly context-dependent in English as well as in Bulgarian.
The article presents a development of some ideas from S. Ivančev’s articles (re-issued in a volume in 1978) about the competition between the 3rd pers. Sing. pronoun in Czech and in Bulgarian and demonstrative pronouns and their zero equivalents in the expression of anaphoric relations in a text. Cases are investigated in which the Czech obligatorily expressed anaphoric to in a syntactically independent (non-attributive) position has a non-obligalory (i. e. alongside the possibility of use of a pronoun) zero exponent correspondence in Bulgarian; for example: Някой почука на вратата. Беше раздавачът. vs. Czech Někto zaklepal на dveře. Byl to listonoš, but not *Byl listonoš.
The article compares the most important phonetic phenomena belonging to the segmental level of contemporary Arabic and Bulgarian and more precisely to their consonant systems. Some new conclusions on the methods of teaching Bulgarian to Arab students are made on the basis of contrastive analysis.
The morphology of Bulgarian verb forms reflects a basic semantic dichotomy: on the left are the categories of Modus actionis (aspects and epistemic moods), followed by the deictic (but not necessarily shifter) categories of Modus dicendi (tense, taxis and status). The theory of grammatical oppositions provides an explanation for certain stylistic possibilities of Bulgarian and English, with no need to posit additional exotic categories specific to Bulgarian. The uniqueness of Bulgarian lies in the extremely economical arrangement of the inherited Slavic morphemes and their meanings in oppositions of three kinds: privative, subordinative, and the combination of these basic oppositions into equipollent ones.
The comparative investigation of the functional importance of the demonstrative pronoun to/eto, to in Czech and in Russian allows the establishment of the correlation of these pronouns at the systemic 1evel (direct deixis) and of considerable differences at the functional level both in the expression of transfer to earlier and later context (relative deixis) and in the description of expressive functions. The function meaning of the Czech demonstrative pronoun to is characterized by an absolute use, a high degree of semantic generalization and an ability to substitute various material things and abstract notions expressed through separate words, utterances and even through a whole text. The implicit polyfunctionality of Czech to is explicitly expressed in Russian not only through various types of functional-semantic equivalents but often through equivalents of usage. In the communicative equivalence of utterances there are also cases of non-equivalent correspondences.
В систематичен ред. Книги, статии и рецензии 375 названия. Съдържа и списък на прегледаните източници.
The article discusses some basic problems of the peculiarities of learning Russian phraseology by native speakers of the closely related Bulgarian language. A classification of Russian phraseological units is proposed allowing the determination of the degree of difficulty in their acquisition by Bulgarian learners. The reasons for the incorrect or inexact usage of Russian phraseological units in the speech of Bulgarians are shown.
The article discusses the formative -ara, typical of the Serbo-Croatian word-formation system, from the point of view of its functional and semantic peculiarities and the distribution of this element observed in recent years in colloquial speech in SR Macedonia. Some differences are established in the functioning of this formative in the two word-formation systems influencing its productivity, semantics, normative evaluation, etc.
Corrections in the typology of Russian compound adjectives with coordinating relationships are made and general results are listed of the investigation of the combinability, the word-formation structures and the word-formation typology of such adjectives which were formed during the Liberation Russo-Turkish War of borrowed names of Bulgarian geographic sites. These derived words are classified into two word-formation types, one of which includes derived adjectives of pure composition and the other – derived adjectives of compound-suffixal word-formation.
Examples from the international lexicon are adduced in the article, showing how two or more word-formation paradigms distinguished by a semantic feature are established in the framework of etymologically related derivational sequences. They contain functional-categorial positions which partly reflect in an adequate way the prototype and which are partly replenished with secondary home or foreign formations. For this reason, in the comparison of analogous paradigms in different languages structural and/or semantic deviations are established. Their systematic investigation gives evidence of the development of migration of internationalisms and their timely discovery in foreign language teaching helps the achievement of perfect communication.
The aim of the article is to establish the degree and the language level at which the two basic transcribers of the Old Russian Archangelsk Gospel of 1092 kept the Old Bulgarian protographs unchanged and in how far they managed to reflect graphically the language processes characteristic of the living Russian tongue at the end of the 11th c. The manuscript in question is a valuable source of Old Bulgarian syntax and lexicon: it contains some unknown or not very well-known syntactic structures and lexical expressions. The phonetic and the morphological peculiarities of the manuscript, on their part, evidence the living element in the late 11th c. Russian speech and its role in setting up the language norm of the period. The stability of the standard norm is in some cases determined by the peculiarities of the Old Bulgarian protographs and in other cases by the living Old Russian idiom.
The article continues а discussion about the problem of the interpretational aspects of grammatical semantics which was presented in an earlier work of the author. The paper analyses the modes of language interpretation of the subject’s semantics depending on the syntactic structure of the sentence. The investigation is based on Russian material.
Language content is understood as a certain unity integrating within itself both the denotative basis and its language interpretation. A more detailed analysis of particular phenomena is focussed on the category of aspect. The investigation is based on Russian material. Special attention is paid to the interpretational component of grammatical meanings in connection with the problem of semantic equivalence/non-equivalence.
A method is proposed for measuring various typological indices of morphological paradigms: the average degree of syntheticity (s) and the reciprocal index, the average degree of analyticity (a), the average degree of compositionality (c); the average degree of markedness (m); and the reciprocal index (m), which can be considered as an index of amorphologism (or, in the historical plane, of demorphologization). It is proved on this basis that in language c = a . m and, correspondingly, a = cm. That is why the development towards analyticity leads to the development of composed forms or to demorphologization. Further on, an index of the average degree of discretization of grammatical information on a formal level is introduced (d), and an index of the average degree of polimorphemity of word forms (π) which is one of the indicators of agglutination. On this basis the correlation d = a . π is put forward. Languages tend towards a high d because thus a high degree of isomorphism between the level of expression and the level of content is achieved. However, while in agglutinative languages high d is achieve mainly through high π, i. е. it follows from the agglutinative structure itself, in inflexion languages d is achieved mainly through the increase of a and only partly through the increase of π. And finally out of the first two equations it follows that d = c . m . π (cf. the three ways in which d is increased in the history of Indo-European languages). The correlations are only part of the typological laws which can be explicated in the same fashion.