В систематичен ред. Книги, статии и рецензии 339 названия. Съдържа и списък на прегледаните източници.
In translated Bulgarian, Albanian and Turkish examples lacking the expected correspondences of aorists and imperfects, either Turkish or Bulgarian has an imperfect where the other two have aorists. This is evidence that the imperfect is more marked in each language since a more marked form is less likely to correspond to another language’s counterpart. The noncorresponding imperfects denote sequential or inceptive activities, which contradicts the meaning of contemporaneousness suggested for Bulgarian and Albanian. Perhaps because it is Indo-European like Bulgarian but lacks a superordinate aspectual opposition like Turkish, Albanian is intermediate in using the aorist when one of the others has an imperfect.
The article deals with causativity/factitivity of verbs in Hungarian in comparison with English. The author attempts to prove that Hungarian is one of the languages in which the distinction between the causative and the factitive is almost entirely grammaticalized. To describe more fully the causative constructions, sublativity and other factors should be taken into account. A conclusion is reached that Hungarian is not an appropriate counterexample against passive analyses of causative constructions and Comrie’s opinion should be argued against.
The differences between the English and the Bulgarian existential constructions are discussed as the result of the application of two different cognitive models, namely: (a) The English there + be + NP as the result of a specific type of metonymy typical of English, labelled as „predicate-splitting“ mapping, and (b) The Bulgarian има + NP as a metaphorical expansion based on the metaphor „Space (as if) has the entities inhabiting it“.
The article discusses the lexicographic activity of Konstantin Fotinov (1790–1858), the result of which is the unfinished manuscript of a three-language Russian-Bulgarian-Greek dictionary. The Russian and especially the Bulgarian part of the dictionary are the subject of linguistic analysis. Analyzed are the graphic, orthographic and grammatical characteristics of the Bulgarian words. From the point of view of the origin of the lexicon, dialectisms, Church-Slavonicisms, Turkish borrowings, Grecisms and West-Europeanisms are distinguished. Special attention is drawn to calques from Greek and to neologisms characteristic of the language of Fotinov. Fotinov used not only translation but also translation interpretation of the Russian words into Bulgarian. At the end of the article dictionary entries are given where translation interpretation of the Russian lexicon prevails as a method of semantization.
review of linguistic literature on voice in French and in Bulgarian is made. Various approaches in defining the category are presented with a special reference to the level at which the analysis is made. Moot questions are taken into account, pertaining to the number of voices in the two languages and to the distribution of the verb forms they contain.
The paper discusses the differences and similarities between English scientific texts and scientific texts written in English by Bulgarians. This is a contrastive study of a specific kind employing a textlinguistic approach. Two levels of analysis are presented – the first is from the point of view of Functional Sentence Perspective and the second concerns the use of conjunctions as a cohesive device for securing structural unity of the text. Some conclusions are drawn concerning both the theoretical aspects of contrastive analysis on the text level and the practical needs of English for Specific Purposes teaching.
n connection with the difficulties of teaching Bulgarian to Arabs and Arabic to Bulgarians, two phonemes are investigated
The article discusses the syllable and syllables, as well as the vowel system of modern standard Chinese in comparison with the vowel system of Bulgarian; pointed out are the phonetic changes in the vowel system of Chinese occurring in discourse and some problems of the Bulgarian transcription of Chinese.
A hypothesis is put forward about two possible types of partitioning space: in the first, some object Y is chosen which is taken to be the centre of special organization, the second object (X) is localized in space according to the relationship to Y; in the other type, space partitioning takes place independently of both objects which only occupy particular positions in it. The explication of these types of space partitioning in Russian and English is analysed and compared on the basis of space models with the prepositions and adverbs около, возле, у, рядом and near, nearby, close by, by, beside, next to.
Lexemes having the component еко- in their structure in standard Czech and in standard Bulgarian are investigated. They draw the attention because of the expansion of their spheres of use in the contemporary state of both languages. Explained are the extralinguistic and the linguistic factors conditioning the phenomenon. The comparative observation of the development, functioning, morphological essence, word-formation and nature of the current standard language processes leads to conclusions about a number of common as well as specific properties of the lexemes in question in the two Slavic languages.
The article discusses the realizability of condition in Bulgarian and German on a comparative basis and its two varieties in German (hypothetical and potentially conditional sentences/clauses), as well as the combinations of the semantic feature ‘realizability’ with other semantic features. Lexically, introductory conjunctions are pointed out with their semantic and stylistic differentiatedness. The formal organization of the complex compound sentence with a subordinate clause of realizable condition justifies the reasons for the positioning of the subordinate clause. The two-fold syntactic function of some of the subordinate clauses of this type is discussed.
The article aims at establishing the combinations of verb forms in German and Bulgarian in complex compound sentences with a subordinate clause of unrealizable condition. Their use is influenced by the transfer of an unreal cause-effect link (A) to the present/future or (B) to the past. Whereas in German (as is well-known) both in (A) and in (B) the same conjunctive form different for (A) and (B) is used in the main and in the subordinate clause, with the exception of a case not studied so far in the literature in Bulgarian in the main and in the subordinate clause different tense forms of the indicative mood are used, except in cases when both verb forms are substituted by the conditional mood. In the main clause in Bulgarian, however, no difference is made between (A) and (B), i. e. one and the same tense form is used.
The present article deals with the problems of the lexical realization of the antonymic adjectival pairs голям – малък in Bulgarian and their equivalents in Russian (большой – маленький) on a contrastive basis. The adjectives are analyzed as bearing the semantic feature ‘spatial dimension’. An attempt is made to describe them systematically and to present their collocabilitiy diagrammatically.
The article has established: the types of Bulgarian equivalents of determinative compound nouns in German scientific and technical literature; semantic relationships between their components whereby German nouns are translated using a particular Bulgarian expression; the frequency with which a particular Bulgarian expression corresponds to two-member compound nouns; similarities and differences between the modes of translation of German two-member compound nouns in scientific and technical literature and in fiction. Conclusions are made concerning difficulties in reading the meaning of German determinative compound nouns and their translation into Bulgarian, as well as concerning the process of teaching German to technical students.
The article presents similarities and differences in the use of pronominal forms of address in Bulgarian and Dutch. The cultural and the historical development of the speakers of these two languages have led to essential differences, and similarities in some cases and in certain speech situations. This fact reflects the different mentality of Bulgarians and Dutchmen projected as a national and cultural peculiarity of Bulgarian and Dutch. Sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic approaches in exploring the subject enable the direct use of the results of observations in such spheres as translation, foreign language teaching and in the discussion of problems of the complex acquisition of language and culture.
The aim of the study is to show the main tendencies in the development of един as an exponent of referential indefiniteness in Bulgarian during the 20th century. The tendencies are illustrated on material taken from various Bulgarian translations of Dostoyevski as well as from two Bulgarian translations of the Czech writer A. Jirásek.
The article analyses Russian and Bulgarian sentences with adverbials of concession expressed by the preposition при + noun. The syntagmatic relations of the preposition are considered as well as the role played by the actualizing particles and by the semantics of the adverbial and verbal phrase components in expressing concession. Some regularities in translating Russian concessive sentences into Bulgarian and Bulgarian concessive sentences into Russian are established.
The article deals, on a contrastive basis, with formally related lexical units in Russian and Bulgarian, which are linked by a relationship of semantic equivalence. Types of analogues are distinguished according to the character and the degree of formal closeness as well as according to the type of semantic relationship between the analogue words.
The paper is concerned with the Sequence of Tenses (SOT) under conditions of bilingualism. The authors undertook fieldwork among Maltese University students. Unlike the Maltese mass media in English, in which SOT is strictly observed, the majority of informants do not apply it. The non-observance of SOT could be the result of interference from their mother tongue (permanent code-switching in family interacting). It could also be due to the attitude of Maltese students – speakers of English as a second language – to the „errors“ in SOT, which they consider communicatively irrelevant.
.Short words, known in German lexicology as short forms with a preserved word beginning and word ending, are additionally divided into word isolations and fragmentations. On the basis of certain criteria, the distinction enables their etymological equalling with whole lexemes and hence the uncovering of possible etymological doublets. This thesis in applied theory is illustrated with a number of short forms borrowed in German from English.
The article considers etymologically heterogeneous synonyms in Rumanian, one of which is an Old Bulgarian literary loan. Some observations concerning the fate of these Bulgarian literary words in the Rumanian vocabulary are made.
On the basis of recent investigations and the author’s observations, the article offers a system of criteria which would help establish Bulgarian literary elements in the Rumanian lexicon. These are to be distinguished from oral borrowings that entered the Rumanian language in dif- ferent period of its development.
The article is an attempt at applying a more abstract model of description of the slang lexicon. The authors examine a new word-formation model in the Bulgarian youth slang – reverse transcoding. It constitutes a two-stage, two-way operation of formal loaning on the basis of a mechanical equalling of two lexemes from different languages. Reverse transcoding is viewed in correlation with the phenomenon of transposition. The authors investigate two of its mani- festations: hybrid transcoding and myxonymic transcoding. They explain them through synon- ymy by showing the process of their appearance and their functioning.
The historical inquiry and the periodization of changes in the content of the traditional notion Sefarad-1–2–3, preceding the essential part of the subject chosen, is an attempt to follow chronologically the events that preconditioned the complex history and the spiritual values of Spanish Jews. At the ethnolinguistic level, attention is drawn to the difference between Ladino and Judesmo, very often confused, both in the past and today, by their speakers – Balkan Sefarads. In its immediate social context Judesmo is viewed as a specific koine and its historical and functional unity with Spanish is proved.
The article is an attempt to register interjections used in the Sefarad idiom in Bulgaria and to give them an initial interpretation. On the basis of empirical data, the ways of penetration into the idiom of borrowings are traced in order to follow its contacts with other languages. Independent Sefarad word-forms are registered as well, which evidence the vitality of the system of Spanish, and parallels are made – in so far as it is possible – with other Sefarad idioms of the East.
In this article, а psycholinguistic approach is applied in the discussion of the acquisition of the Bulgarian lexicon by foreign learners. By means of a free associative experiment made with a Bulgarian and a Greek group of students some intercultural differences in the understanding of words equal in linguistic meaning are shown. In the interlanguage comparison, some universal human regularities are manifested, typical of the process of verbal association.
The article deals with the problem of the semantic adaptation of lexical borrowings. The basic stages in the process of semantic assimilation are pointed out; the semantic structures of the prototype word and of the borrowing are compared; the changes occurring in the process of functioning of borrowings in the lexico-semantic system of the recipient language are fol- lowed.
The sharp confrontation about the essence of phonetic laws and their exceptionless character ended a long time ago. The question, however, remains an open one. The author reviews the assumptions on the problem of the basic representatives of one of the most prominent schools in the history of linguistics (the school of A. Meillet) against the background of the contradictory opinions of linguists from various countries. It is pointed out in the conclusion that it is not crucial what name will be given to certain language phenomena – laws or tendencies. What is decisive is the content included in the term itself, not necessarily the form of the label.