В систематичен ред. Книги, статии и рецензии, около 400 названия.
Материалите групирани по поддържани рубрики в списанието. Около 281 названия.
A number of past tenses exist in French and in Bulgarian: the Aorist, the Perfect, the Imperfect, and the Pluperfect. The paper discusses the uses of the Perfect and its alternative Present tense forms in subordinate complement clauses. In French, as in all Romance languages, these clauses demand an obligatory sequence of tenses rule, while in Bulgarian there is an open choice between the obligatory Romance rule type and the non-sequence Slavic type.
The Russian dialects of the Odessa district merit particular attention due to the fact that for over 200 years they had been isolated from the bulk of the South Russian languages, being in close contact with Ukrainian, Moldavian and Bulgarian dialects. Russian and Bulgarian dialects have often held neighbouring relations but the Bulgarian loanwords in Russian dialects have scarcely been studied. Therefore, it might be of scientific interest to draw attention to some agricultural and everyday-life realia, which have been borrowed from neighbouring Bulgarian dialects. The reasons which stimulated the infiltration of the lexemes under discussion are analysed along with the phonetic-morphological and semantic characteristics of their assimilation. Their spheres of usage and distribution rates are established and some peculiarities of theinterrelation between the Bulgarian and Russian words are discussed with regard to that specific system of dialects.
The relation between adjectivization and hypotaxis is examined from a semantic point of view. The utterance is identified with the thematic content of the phrase, whose modalization is obligatory. The modal formulation of the utterance involves a correspondence of the semantic affinity of grammemes to the pertinent features ‘prospectiveness’ (–) and ‘retrospectiveness’ (+). According to the character of determination, adjectivization is divided into selective and descriptive, the integrated utterances losing or maintaining their semantic integrity. The semantic reflexion is manifested through the syntactic frames of the language, which can constrain up to the level of the simple phrase, being further repetitive and combined.
The paper is an attempt to clarify the nature of masculine-personal gender in the Slavic languages, which is an extraordinary phenomenon as far as the scope of language creativity and imagination is concerned. Attention is centred on the interplay of the three criteria used to establish the respective gender of the noun. Priority is given to the semantic criterion. Various grammatical means of expressing the phenomenon of masculine gender in the Slavic languages are also discussed.
The experimental study carried out on German diphthongs and their correspondences in Bulgarian showed that the spectra of these sound units are of the same shape for both languages. The German diphthongs and their Bulgarian correspondences consist of three parts almost equal in duration: target 1
The article is a review of contrastive linguistic studies in Bulgaria in the period 1944–1984. It discusses works of a general character as well as those devoted to the various groups of languages that have been subjected to contrastive analysis: Slavic, Germanic, Romance, Balkan, Finnish and Hungarian, Asian and African, and offers some generalizations in conclusion.
The paper discusses some ways of rendering two loanwords of English origin
The paper discusses the Bulgarian central vowel [ъ] and its sound correspondences in Portuguese. The central vowels of the two languages are contrasted by means of acoustic, auditory and functional analyses of the vowels in stressed and in unstressed position. The instrumental analysis shows that the acoustic parameters of the Bulgarian central vowel [ъ] are very similar to the parameters of the Portuguese central vowel [ə] in stressed position. In unstressed position, on the other hand, there are two vowels, which are similar to the Bulgarian [ъ],the vowels [ə] and [α]. This contrast is accounted for by the fact that in unstressed position the other central vowel of the Portuguese system [α] (whose variants almost overlap with the variants of [ə]), moves upwards and takes a more centralized position. The auditory analysis confirms the results of the spectral analysis, i. e. in the stressed position [ъ] is identified with [ə] while in unstressed position it is identified both with [ə] and [α].
The paper discusses for the first time some ways of explicit and intensive application of the theoretical experience accumulated by modern dialectology in the contrastive description of related languages. An attempt is made to prove the theoretical reliability and adequacy of this comparatively young branch of science and the theoretical possibilities it affords for being employed as a conceptual base for contrastive studies. Concrete answers are given to the questions of what in the metalanguage experience of modern dialectology might be useful for contrastive studies and what would such a description be like. Bulgarian, Byelorussian and Russian correspondences in the sphere of stressed vocalism are used to illustrate some of the points.
The paper discusses the category of substantivised verbs. A number of semantic groups of substantivised verbs emerge out of the classification according to various semantic relations among the verbs and their underlying nominals, across various unrelated languages. The linguistic соrpus yielded by a typological experiment is analysed in the paper along with the results from the study. Some theoretical implications, connected with the experiment are also discussed in the final part of the paper.
The paper contrasts the linguistic means of expressing location in Russian and Bulgarian. The systematic nature of this particular semantic field is analysed across the two languages, having in mind both grammatical form and grammatical meaning. Some national idiosyncrasies within the languages under discussion could be accounted for by the respective typological differences of Bulgarian and Russian.
The paper is based on speech samples from the secret professional jargon of the masons, in the South Western part of Bulgaria. The first part of the paper discusses some basic rules for the formation of lexicons in similar social dialect types. These are lexical borrowing from neighbouring languages, metaphoric and pejorative usage, independent word-formation, semantic calques, etc. The second part of the paper presents an etymological analysis of the lexicon of the secret jargon under discussion. Some existing etymologies have been expanded and/or corrected and some new ones have been proposed.
Some problems of government in Spanish and Bulgarian are contrastively analysed in the paper. In connection with the problem a number of basic error types, produced by learners of Bulgarian who come from Spanish speaking countries are discussed. Conclusions are drawn concerning some typological characteristics of Bulgarian and Spanish in the area of government within the framework of the predicative syntagm.
The paper discusses the characteristic features of the names carried by Bulgarian inhabitants dwelling in South Ukraine. The material was excerpted from ancient registers belonging to ten Bulgarian village settlements in the Odessa County. It also reflects the author’s personal on-site investigations. Some general tendencies for bringing closer the Bulgarian and the Russian name inventory can be noticed. It has to be pointed out that while the registration files fixed down a unified name giving norm for Soviet citizens, the speech of the Bulgarian settlers has retained in active use some popular Bulgarian names. Among the factors which have influenced the choice of names are: traditions of usage, existence of colloquial name forms and euphony.
The paper presents а model for the formation of anthropomorphic metaphors as a subtype of substantive metaphors. Componential analysis is used. The conceptual mechanism discussed in the paper is assumed to be universal and acting at the deep semantic level of language. On the surface semantic level of natural languages one can observe the realization of the universal conceptual mechanism of metaphor formation, which accounts for similarities and contrasts of different languages. The formation of metaphors is illustrated with examples from the lexical microsystem of ‘animals’ in Russian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian
Cultural and demographic contacts of the population living in the central part of North Bulgaria with Hungary and the Hungarian language have been quite intensive for the last two centuries. As a result of the language contact a number of loanwords of Hungarian origin have been accepted in Bulgarian. One of these loanwords, kjande / kjante, ‘kerchief’ has not been registered so far in any of the Bulgarian lexicographic sources.
Considering in brief some studies on the English modals, the author concludes that, when used independently, neither the objectively logical approach nor the subjectively pragmatic approach can account for the enormous semantic load and great diversity of uses of the units under discussion. So, it has been suggested in the paper that the sense (m) of a modal predication may be represented as a multilayered structure by means of the formula m = [p(L)], where (L) stands for its logical substructure, and (p), for its presuppositional force. The latter, in turn, is determined by a pre-suppositional system of the modals, set up a priori, comprising all those factors which signal the various presuppositional forces of the modals. The interaction between (L) and (p) accounts for the more specific modal meanings. The comparison with Bulgarian serves as a further check on some of the conclusions.
The paper discusses the results of dictation and free composition exercises done by foreign students of Bulgarian and checked for punctuation. The results, which were processed by mathematic and statistic methods, prove that punctuation marks faithfully reflect the intonation contours of the utterances in Bulgarian and keep an accurate record of the flow of speech within the written medium. Every punctuation mark is an independent morpheme, carrying its intonational, semantic and stylistic load within the text boundaries. Punctuation has a clearly defined contribution to the meaning of utterances and should enjoy the same rights as the rest of the meaning formatives. Therefore it should be given the same functional status as word-order and the lexico-grammatical phrase-constituents.
The paper discusses noun determination in German and Bulgarian on a contrastive plane. Attention is focused on two stylistic functions of the indefinite article in German and the indefinite pronouns един, една, едно, едни ‘one’ in Bulgarian. The results of the contrastive analysis verify the hypothesis that the pronoun един is quite similar in its functions to an indefinite article.
The paper discusses the results of an auditive experiment conducted with native speakers of English and Bulgarian. The purpose of the experiment was to compare English and Bulgarian monosyntagmatic utterances in terms of the theory of functional sentence perspective. Emphasis was laid on intonation as a basic means of expressing functional sentence perspective. Declarative statements and negative sentences with various semantic structures were analysed. It was proved once again that intonation plays a highly significant role in expressing functional sentence perspective in English. Intonation has similar functions in Bulgarian and is often combined with word order.
The sender of the message in Bulgarian (either in the spoken or in the written media) enjoys the opportunity to encode morphologically his objective or subjective attitude towards the contents of the message by alternatively using two morphologically marked verb forms within the framework of one and same grammatical tense. A three-way correlation is defined among the past tense forms based on their identical referential value. The correlation is characterized by the following componential features: objectivity + eye-witness perception by the speaker (седеше ‘He was sitting’); objectivity + second-hand information, supplied to the speaker (седял е ‘I was informed he had been sitting’); subjectivity + lack of information by the speaker (седял ‘He may have been sitting’). Citational modality varies from a minimum to a maximum degree of subjectivity, i. e. from the purely narrative function to the emphatic uses of the verb forms. When the speaker suddenly switches from the ‘lack of information’ state to the ‘eye-witness perception’ state he reacts emotionally to the objective entity he is witnessing (че той седял / бил седял! ‘He might have been sitting’, ‘Sitting he was, indeed!’). This general semantic outline is used as a starting point for the contrast of linguistic means used to render the various semantic components of the Bulgarian citational modality forms in French.
The paper outlines а number of viewpoints concerning the relation between biological sex and grammatical gender in the Slavic languages. The nomination of females in Modern Bulgarian is discussed in relation to the category of gender. Attention is focused on feminine names with formal neuter inflections.
Contrastive and statistic methods are applied in the paper in order to find out some syntactic similarities and differences in the word-formation patterns of headlines in German and Bulgarian mass media. Keeping in consideration traditional word-formation classifications and having analysed some monolingual studies on the subject, the authors came to the conclusion that the drive towards language economy is far more pronounced in German than in Bulgarian and is manifested in the former by varying means of expression. The paper further specifies the correlation among the various groups of compounds, used as headlines across the two languages.
A number of previous studies on Bulgarian loanwords in Hungarian are critically assessed in the paper. About seventy words are discussed (including personal names, toponyms and hydronyms). Various mutually complementary criteria (phonetic, geographic, historical, etc.) have been applied in order to determine the precise origin of the loanwords. Considered in conjunction, these criteria have yielded more accurate concepts concerning the origin of the words under discussion. It seems evident that a large number of loanwords which used to carry the label ‘probably of Bulgarian origin’, or had been assigned to the rather general category of South-Slavic, are, in fact, of Slavic-Bulgarian origin.
olysemic adjectives of common Slavic origin in Russian and Bulgarian manifest considerable semantic similarities and are sometimes close to being identical. The structural differences between their dictionary entries do not always reveal the real differences in their meanings
The paper discusses some nominal phrases which contain the preposition на and express qualifying relations. There has been no detailed study on this problem so far. The Bulgarian nominal phrases are contrasted with their syntactic equivalents in Polish and Russian and the distribution of the preposition is examined in terms of its relations with the lexical environment. The use of the prepositions s and v in the same meaning is discussed in terms of syntactic synonymy and combinatorial syntactic variants.
The forms of the vocative are analysed across three genealogically related languages, of which Russian and Ukrainian developed out of Old Russian and Bulgarian was descended from Old Bulgarian. The analysis clearly manifests some common typological features between Bulgarian and Ukrainian in contrast with Russian, which had lost the morphological markers for the vocative. It seems evident, however, that vocative forms are being reduced due to the identification of the vocative inflections with the masculine and feminine noun forms. It is worth pointing out that Bulgarian is characterized by quite significant phonetic and morphological changes which, to all appearances, have to be accounted for by the loss of the case inflections and the advent of analytism. Ukrainian, on the other hand, has preserved to a much greater extent the traditional morphological markers, characteristic of the Old Russian vocative forms.
The paper presents а short contrastive study of the German and Bulgarian participial systems, based on examples from T. Mann’s novel The Magic Mountain and its Bulgarian translation by T. Berberov. After a summary of the participial forms in the two languages, the author describes some of the functional correspondences for the German participial forms (Participle I/Participle II) in the Bulgarian translation as far as Bulgarian participles are used. In a lot of cases there exists an apparent correspondence between Participle I and the Bulgarian present participle, on the one hand, and between Participle II and the Bulgarian active participle from the aorist-stem or the past passive participle, on the other hand. In spite of these correspondences there is no complete congruence between the systems across the two languages, because of important aspectual and other differences.
В систематичен ред. Книги, статии и рецензии, около 400 названия.
The paper reviews briefly some opinions on problems of aphasia ranging from ancient to modern times. What should be the position and scope of neurolinguistics within the system of sciences? Representatives of various schools do not share the same approach to that question. According to some, the objectives of neurolinguistics should be restricted solely to research on pathological phenomena. A more convincing concept, however, is the one which maintains that being a new branch of science, neurolinguistics should study both the processes of coding and decoding of speech as well as the respective deviation types, connected with them. The importance of aphasia studies for the clarification of some problems of general linguistics is emphasized. The paper also serves as an introduction to the article „The Linguistic Description of Aphasia“ published in the same issue of the journal.
The great variety of languages finds expression in the specific ways of noun division according to certain criteria (animate/inanimate, nominal classes, grammatical gender, etc.). The paper first discusses some nominal systems typical of a number of African, Caucasian and Australian languages. The problem of grammatical gender as a classifying (and word-changing) category is discussed further on. The formation and development of this grammatical category is traced out in the Semitic and Indo-European languages. The basic criteria for assigning nouns to a particular grammatical gender are analysed. The paper presents a detailed study of the grammatical and lexical means of indicating natural sex in unrelated languages (through affixation, noun determiners, heteronymy).